Category Archives: Al Ajurruumiyyah

A More Extensive Discussion About بَابُ‏ ‬الاِعْرَاب (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection]) from The Ajurruumiyyah with Endnotes

 بَابُ‏ ‬الاِعْرَاب  (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection])

Arabic Text:

 ‏(‬الاِِعْرَابُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬تَغْيِيرُ‏ ‬اَواَخِرِ‏ ‬الْكَلِمِ‏ ‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏ ‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏ ‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬عَـلَيهَا لَفْظًا أَوْ‏ ‬تَقْدِيرًا‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

الاعراب is الـمبتدأ (the subject) in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ  is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

هُـوَ تَـغْيِيرُ is a phrase which consists of هو which is ضمير فصل (a pronoun of separation) and the noun تغيير which is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject noun) الاعراب in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that تغيير is in the case of rafʿ  is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end. تغيير is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

أَوَاخِـرِ is مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [تغيير]) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah  construction).  The sign that أَوَاخِـرِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been  clearly affixed to its end.  أَوَاخِـر  is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الْكَلِمِ‏ ‬is  مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [أَوَاخِرِ) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign that الْـكَلِمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been  clearly affixed to its end.

لاِخْـتِلافِ is a phrase which consists of لِـ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and اِخْـتِلاف which  مجرورٌ‏ ‬بالالجار (the noun in the case of jarr because of the preposition).   The sign which demonstrates that  اِخْـتِلافِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

لفظًا اَوُ‏ ‬تقديرًا  is a phrase which consists of the noun لفظًا which is حال (a conditional phrase) in the case of naṣb and اَوُ which is حرف جرّ (a conjunction) and‏ ‬تقديرًا which is also حال in the case of naṣb and معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [لفظًا]).  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of naṣb is also in the case of naṣb. The sign which demonstrates that the two nouns لفظًا‏ ‬and تقديرًا  are in the case of naṣb is a fat-ḥah which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

English Translation of the Text:

اَلاِعْـرَاب  is the changing  of the end (last letter) of words  because of the different  kinds  of  عَـوَامِـل (governors or governing factors)  الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬ًعَلَىهَا  (preceding or affecting them).  [This change] is لَفْظاً (by expression) orتَقْدِيرًا (by implication).

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

‏ ‬الاِِعْراَبُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬تَغْيِيرُ‏ ‬اَوَخِرِالْكَلِمِ‏ ‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏ ‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏ ‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬ًعَلَىهَا لَفْظاً‏ ‬أَوْ‏ ‬تَقْدِيرًا انّ‏ ‬هذا التّغيير اللاّحق‏  ‬في‏ ‬اواخرَ‏ ‬الكلم‏  ‬قد‏ ‬يكون لفظًا كقولك جاء زيدٌ‏ ‬و رأيت زيدًا و مررت بزيدٍ‏ ‬و قد‏ ‬يكون تقديرًا كقولك جاء الفتَى ورأيت الفتَىو مررت بالفتَى فانّ‏ ‬التّغيير الذي‏ ‬في‏ ‬آخر زيد ظاهر ملفوظ والتّغيير الذي‏ ‬في‏ ‬آخر الفتَى مقدّر منويّ‏ ‬لأنه مبني‏ ‬على الالف المقصورة ولهذا قلنا أنّ‏ ‬التّغيير‏ ‬يكون لفظًا او تقديرًا

Explanation in English:

اَلاِعْـرَاب 1is the changing of the end (last letter) of words2 because of the different (kind of) عَوَامِل (governors) preceding them or governing factors3 affecting.  (This change) is لَفْظاً (by expression) or تَـقْدِيرًا (by implication)4.  This affixed change which is at the end of words is ‏ ‬لَفْظًاlike when you say: جََاءَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd came) and رَأَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا (I saw Zayd) and‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزَيْدٍ (I passed by Zayd).  It is تَقْدِيرًا  when you say: جَاءَ‏ ‬الْفَتَى (the youth came) and رََأَيْتُ‏ ‬الْفَتَى (I saw the youth) and مَـرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِــالْـفتَى (I passed by the youth).  And so the change which occurred at the end of the word زَيْـد is ظَاهِـر (clear) and ملَفُوظ (expressed) and the change (which should have occurred) at the end of اَلْفَتَى is (implied) and مَـنْوِيٌّ (intended) because it (اَلْـفَتَى) is  مَـبْنِي‏ ‬على الالف المقصورة‏ = ‬ى (its construction is fixed on the alif maqṣuurah5 and unchangeable).  For this reason we have said, that the change is لَـفْظًا or تَقْدِيرًا.       ‬

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَ‏‬اَقْسَامُهُ‏ ‬اَرْبَعَةٌ‏: ‬رَفْعٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ نَصْبٌ‏ ‬وَ‏‬خَفْضٌ‏ ‬وَ‏‬جَزْمٌ‏ ‬فَلِلاَسْمَاءِ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلِكَ الرَّفْعُ‏ ‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏ ‬وَالْخَفْضُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬لاَ‏ ‬جََزْمَ‏ ‬فِيهَا وَ‏‬لِلاَفْعَالِ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلكَِ‏ ‬الرَّفْعُ‏ ‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬الْجَزْمُ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬خَفْضَ‏ ‬فِيهَا‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text

واَقْسَامُهُ is a phrase which consists of وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْتِئْنَاف (the resumptive waaw) and اقسام which is المبتدأ (the subject) in the case of rafʿ and ـه which is ضمير متصل (an attached pronoun).  The sign which demonstrates that اَقْـسَامُ  is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  اَقْـسَامُ is also مضاف (an ajoined noun) and ـه is  مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [اقسام]) and as a result, itis standing in the place of مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrated that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مَبْنِي (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah.

اَرْبَعَةٌ is خَبْرُ‏ ‬الْمُبْتَدَإِ (the predicate of the subject noun) اَقْسَامُ and is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

رَفْعٌ is بَدلُ‏ ‬بَعْضٍ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬كُلٍّ (a substitute of a part for the whole) for اربعة.  If اربعة is remove from the statement, رفع can stand in its place. رفع is the case of rafʿ, because the substitute for a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that رَفْعٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏نَصْبٌ is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَـطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) and the noun نصب which is مَعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun نَـصْبٌ is the case of rafʿ, because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of raf.‏ ‬The sign which demonstrates that نَـصْبٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬خَـفْضٌ is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَـطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) و and the noun خفض which is مَـعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun خَفْضٌ is the case of rafʿ,  because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of rafʿ.‏ ‬ The sign which demonstrates that خَفْضٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏جَـزْمٌ  is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) و and the noun  جزم which is مَـعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun جَـزْمٌ is the case of rafʿ, because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of raf.‏  ‬ The sign which demonstrates that جَزْمٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.    

فَلِلاَسْـمَاءِ is a phrase which consists of  فـَاءُ‏ ‬الْفَصِيحَة (the clarifying faa),  لِـ which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬الْجَرِّ (the preposition)  and الاسماء which is مَجْرُورٌ‏ ‬بالْجَارّ (a noun in the case of jarr because of the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that الاَسْـمَاءِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلِكَ is a  phrase which consists of  مِنْ which is حرف جرّ (the preposition) and ذا which is اسم الإشارة (the demonstrative pronoun) and  لِـ which has لام البعد (the laam denoting distance) and كاف الخطاب (the kaaf of the one being spoken to [the second person pronoun]).  ذَلِكَ is standing in the place of  مجرور بالجارّ (a noun which is in the case of jarr because of the preposition).  The sign that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because كَ which is  كاف الخطاب (the kaaf of the one being spoken to [the second person pronoun]) مبني(is fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah.

رَفْعٌ is مبتدأ مُؤَخَّرٌ (a subject noun that follows the predicate) and it is in the case of rafʿwhich is demonstrated by a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏ ‬نَصْبٌis a phrase which consists of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjugation) و and نَصْبٌ which is المطعوف إليه (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]) . The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ. The sign which demonstrates that نَصْبٌ is in the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬خَفْضٌ  is a phrase which consists of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjugation) and خفض which is  المطعوف إليه (the noun cojoined to it [رفع]). The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that خَفْضٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬لاَ‏ ‬جَزْمَ is  a  phrase  which  consists  of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) and لاَ‏ ‬which is لا نَافِيَةِ‏ ‬الْجِنْسِ(laa of absolute negation of the [kind] of thing being mentioned). لا causes its noun to be مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and therefore, there is no اعراب for it.   Its noun جزم is مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb.  This is because لا نَافِيَةِ‏ ‬الْـجِنْس does the work of  إِنَّ – causing its noun to carry fat-ḥah and its predicate to carry ḍammah.

فِيهَا is a phrase which consists of  فِـي which is  حَرْفُ‏ ‬جَـرّ (a preposition)  and ـهَا which is ضمير متصل (an attached pronoun) which is standing in the place of a noun in the case of jarr (or khafd).  The sign ـهَا is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construction) on alif.

فللافعال من ذلك الرفع والنصب والجزم ولا خفض فيها The explanation of for each part of this sentence is the same as the explanation for each part of the previous sentence.

English Translation of the Text:

وَ‏‬اَقْـسَمُهُ (and its parts) are four:  رَفْـعٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬نَـصْبٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬خَـفْضٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬جَـزْمٌ.   And so  لِلاسْـمَاءِ (the nouns)‏ ‬can have اَلرفْع،النَّصْب،اَلْخَفْض (the case endings of rafʿ6, naṣb7, and khafḍ8 [affixed to their last letter] but  no t‏ ‬اَلجَزْمْ (the case of jazm9).  لِلافْعَال [the verbs]can have اَلرَّفْع‏ ‬،‏ ‬اَلنَّصْب‏ ‬،‏ ‬الْجَزْم (the cases of rafʿnaṣb, and jazm) [affixed to their last letter], but not اَلْخَفْض (the case of khafḍ).

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

واقسامه اربعة رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬وخفضٌ‏ ‬و جزمٌ‏ ‬انّ‏ ‬قسما من اقسام الاعراب مشترك بين الاسماء و الافعال قسمًا منها مختصّ‏ ‬بكل منهما وامّا الحروف فلا‏ ‬يدخلها شيء من اقسام‏ ‬الاعراب لانّها مبنيّة فامّا القسم المشترك بينها هو رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬لانّهما‏ ‬يدخلان اَلأسْـمَاء والأَفْـعَال كقولك زيدٌ‏ ‬يضربُ‏ ‬ولن اضربَ‏ ‬زيدًا والقسم المختصّ‏ ‬هو الخفض والجزم فالخفض مختصّ‏ ‬بالاسم و الجزم مختصّ‏ ‬بالفعل كقولك لم اذهبْ‏ ‬بعبّاسٍ

Explanation in English:

And it (اعراب) has four parts رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬وخفضٌ‏ ‬وجزمٌ.  One part of (الاعراب) is common between الإسم and الفعل and another part of it is exclusive is to each of them10. As for الحروف (the particles), nothing from اقسام الاعراب (the parts of iʿraab) is affixed to them, because they are fixed at‏ ‬their end. The common parts between اَلأسْـمَاء (the nouns) and الأَفْـعَال (the verbs) are: اَلرَّفْعُ (the rafʿ case) and اَلنَّصْب (the naṣb case), because both cases occur  in  الإسْـم and اَلْْفِعْل – like when you  say: يَضْرِبُ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd beat…) in the case of الرَّفْع and لَنْ‏ ‬اَضْرِبَ‏ ‬زَيْدًا (I never beat Zayd) in the case of النَّصْب.  The  exclusive parts are اَلْخَفْض (the khafḍ case) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case). اَلْـخَفْض (the  khafḍ case) is exclusively affixed to اَلأسْماء (nouns) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case) is exclusively affixed to اَلافْـعَال (verbs) – like when you say: لَمْ‏ ‬اَذْهَـبْ‏ ‬بِعَبَّاسٍ (I did not  go with ʿAbbaas).

Endnotes: 

1  The literal meaning of اِعْرَاب is that which is clearly apparent to the sight; obvious ; something that is shown plainly ; something noticeable or clearly visible; something that is  expressed or pronounced;  [Arabic grammar meaning]: inflection (that is to say: changing the last part of a word).

2 This affixed change at the end of the word helps one to determine the role the word is playing in a phrase, clause or sentence.

3 Governing factor here means : a rule of grammar.

4 لفظًا او تقديرًا literally means explicitly (or by expression) or implicily ( or by implication) and what is mean in the text is  ‏ ‬مَلْفُوظًا او مُقَدَّرًا(expressed or implied).

5  Alif maqsuurah ى which resembles the letter yaa without dots is a letter which cannot be inflected when affixed to the end of words.  This is do to its nature in that it should only be vocalized with the a sound that is the equivalent of two fat-ḥahs ــَـ ــَـ , whike the affixing of ḍammah to it would be burdensome on the tongue.   Thus the end of الفتى must remain fixed in its condition regardless of its case of اعراب.

6 The rafʿcase is the case wherein a word has ḍammah ــُـ or a substitute for ḍammah affixed to its end.

7 The naṣb case is the case wherein a word has fatḥah ــَـ or a substitute for fatḥah affixed to its end.

8  The khafḍ case is the case wherein a word has kasrah ــِـ or a substitute for kasrah affixed to its  end.

9 The jasm case is the case wherein a word has sukuun ــْـ or a substitute for sukuun affixed to its end.

10 That is to say:  part of these اعراب (cases / case endings) are common among both اَلاَسْمَاء (the nouns) and اَلأَفْعَال (verbs) and a part of them is affixed to the end of اَلأسْمَاء exclusively and a another part is affixed to the end of اَلأفْعَال exclusively.  As for اَلْحُرُوف (the particles), nothing from عَلاَمَاتُ‏ ‬الإعْرَاب (the signs of i’raab) precede them or causes their last vowel to change.  That is because they are مَبْنِيَّةٌ ([fixed] – that is to say their last vowel is unchangeable).

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A More Extensive Discussion About بَابُ‏ ‬الْكَلاَم (The Chapter About Speech) from The Ajurruumiyyah

بسم الله الرحمــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

قال الْـمُصَـنِّف

وهو أبو عبد الله محمد بن محمد بن داوود الصنهاجي‏ ‬الـْمُـلَـقَّب بابن آجُرُّوم الذي‏ ‬وُلِد في‏ ‬سنة اثنتين‏ ‬وسبعين وستمائة والمتوفي‏ ‬في‏ ‬سنة ثلاث وعشرين وسبعمائة من الهجرة النبوية رحمه الله قال‏:

 ‬بسم الله الرحمــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

The author – and he is Abū ʿAbdullāhi Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Dāwūd aṣ-Ṣanhaajī known as Ibn Aajurruum1 who was born in the year 672 and who died in the year 723 after the Prophetic hijrah may Allah have mercy on him said:

  ‬بسم الله الرحمـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

بِـسْمِ‏ ‬- is a phrase which consists of البَاء = بـِـ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and اسم which is مجرورًا بالجارّ ( a noun in the case of jarr because the preposition) بِـ.  The sign that اِسْـمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah that has been clearly affixed to its end.  اسم is also مُـضَافٌ (a conjoined noun).

اللَّهِ is مُـضَافٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (a noun conjoined to it [اسم]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case jarr of due to the iḍaafah [construction]).  The sign which demonstrates that اللَّهِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

الرَّحْـمَـــنِ is صِـفَةٌ (an adjective / attribute) for اللَّهِ and as a result, it is case of jarr.  An adjective / attribute for a noun in the case jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign that الرَّحْمَـــنِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

الرَّحِـيمِ is صِـفَةُ‏ ‬ثَانٍ (a second adjective/attribute) for اللَّهِ and as a result, it is in the case of jarr.  An adjective / attribute for a noun in the case jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign that الرَّحيِمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

بِـسْمِ(In the Name of)اللَّهِ(Allahالرَّحْـمَــن(the Compassionate)الرَّحِيمِ(the Merciful)

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

ابتدأ المصنف بالبسملة اقتداءًَ‏ ‬بالقرآن الكريم وعملاً‏ ‬بقول رسول اللّه صلّي‏ ‬اللّه عليه و سلّم‏ ((‬كل أمر ذي‏ ‬بال لا‏ ‬يبدأ فيه بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم فهو أقطع‏)) ‬اي‏ ‬حال‏ ‬يهتم به شرعًا لا‏ ‬يبدأ فيه بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم فهو ابتر أو اجذم أو اقطع

Explanation in English:

The author has started with  البسملة (the Basmalah)2 following the example of the Noble Qur’ān, and has acted according to the saying of the Messenger of Allah صلّى الله عليه وسلّم , “Every important matter which does not begin with بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم should be أَقْطَعٌ (interrupted)” – that is to say a matter which is considered important  from the start which  does  not  begin  with   بسم اللّه‏ ‬الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم should be أَبْتَرٌ (cut) or إِجْـذََمٌ (cut off) or أَقْطَعٌ (cut short / interrupted).

بَابُ‏ ‬الْكَلاَم   1– (The Chapter About  Speech) 

Arabic Text:

(اَلْكَلاَمُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬اللَّفْظُ‏ ‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏ ‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏ ‬بِالْوَضْعِ)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

The word اَلْـكَلاَمُ consists of the noun كَـلاَم and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific. اَلْـكَلاَم is also  الـمٌبْتَدَأ (the subject noun).  It is in the case of rafʿ because it is الـمبتدأ (the subject of the sentence and the noun which begins the sentence).  It is not governed by خافض أو ناصب أو جازم (any particle of khafḍ or naṣb or jazm).  The sign which demonstrates that اَلْـكَلاَمُ is in the case of rafʿ is an expressed ḍammah which has been  clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word هُوَ (huwa)3 ضمير فصل (a pronoun of separation) that is مبني على الفتح (fixed in its construction on the fat-ḥah).

The word اللَّفْظ  (al-lufḍh)4 consists of the noun لَـفْط and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  اللَّفْظُ is خبر الكلام (the predicate of the subject noun اَلْكَلاَم) in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that اللَّفْظ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word الـْـمُرَكَّبُ consists of the noun مُـرَكَّب  and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الـْمُرَكَّب is نَعْت (an adjective for اللَّفْظ).   The adjective of a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that الـْـمُرَكَّبُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been  clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word الـْمُفِيدُ consists of the noun مُفِيد  and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.   الـْـمُفِيد is نعت (an adjective) for اللَّفْطُ.  Therefore, the adjective of a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that الـْـمُفِيدُ is in the case of rafʿ is a clearly expressed ḍammah which has been affixed to its last letter.

The phrase بِـالْـوَضْـعِ consist of the noun  وَضْـع, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and the particle بـِ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition).  The  definite noun الْـوَضْـعِ is therefore, مجرور بالجرّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition  بـِ)   The sign which demonstrates  الْوَضْعِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been affixed to its last letter.

 ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮)

English Translation:

الْـكَلاَمُ‮ ‬(Speech) هُـوَ (is) اللَّفْظُ (expression [which is articulated]الـْـمُرَكَّبُ (composite)5 الـْـمُفِيدُ (informative) بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (in accordance with customary usage and [regulated] by conventional [Arabic] rules)6.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

اَلْكَلاَمُ‏  هُوَ‏  اللَّفْظُ‏  الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏  الْـمُفِيدُ‏  بِالْوَضْعِ‏  العربي‏  فلا بدَّ‏  الكلام العربي‏  أن‏  يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏  أن‏  يكون لفظًا وأن‏  يكون مركبًا وأن‏  يكون مفيدًا وأن‏  يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏  فأمّا معنى كونه لفظًا فأن‏ يُلْفَظَ‏  صوتيّــًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الأبجديّة كقولك مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وعَلِيٌّ‏  وذَهَبَ‏  فكلّ‏  كلمة من هذه الكلمات الثلاثة تكون صوتًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الهجائيّة العربيّة‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مركّبًا فأن‏  يكون الكلام العربي‏  مؤلّفًا من كلمتين أو أكثرَ‏  نحو عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏  وإِذَا جاَءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وطُلُوعُ‏  الشَّمْسِ‏  وكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات مركّبةٌ‏  غيرُ‏  مفيدةٍ‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مفيدًا فأن‏  يَكْفي‏  سكوتُ‏  الـمتكلم عليه بحيثُ‏  لا‏  يبقى السّامع منتظرًا لشيء آخر فإذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  هذه العبارة ليست مفيدةً‏  لأنّها لا تفيد الـمخاطب فائدةً‏  تامّةً‏  ولكن إذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  إِلَى بَيْتي‏  فَاَكْرِمْهُ‏  فهذه العبارة أفادت إفَادة  كَافيةً‏  والسامع بها لا‏  ينتنظر أكثر من هذه‏

وأمّا معنى كونه موضوعًا بالوضع العربي‏  هي‏  بثلاث حالات أولها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التي‏  وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى ذات شخص نحو مُحَمَّدٌ‏  أو   للدلالة على معنى ذات مكان نحو مَسْجِدٌ‏  أو للدلالة على معنى ذات شيء نحو كِـتَابٌ‏  فيسمّى كل لفظ من هذه الألفاظ إسمًا

‏  ثانيها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى‏   وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى حصول الحدث بأحد الأزمنة الثلاثة وهي‏  الفعل الماضي  أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث وقع قبل زمان التَّكلُّم نحو ذَهَبَ‏  والفعل المضارع أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يقع في‏  زمان التكلُّم أو بعده كقولك‏  يَذْهَبُ‏  وفعل الأمر أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يُطلَب حصوله بعد زمان التكلُّم نحو إذْهَبْ‏

ثالثها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى وضعها العرب  غير تامّ  الْـمعنى حتّى تُضَمَّ‏  إلى كلمة  غيرها وهي‏  كقولك هَلْ‏  ومِنْ‏  ولَمْ‏   فإذا قلت هَلْ‏  ذَهَبَ‏  ومِنَ‏  الـْمَسْجِدِ‏  ولَمْ‏  يَخْرُجْ‏  فكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات‏  الثّلاثة لم‏  يُفْهَم معناها تامـّــًا حتّى تضمّ‏  إلى كلمة‏  غيرها وتسمّى كل عبارة من هذه العبارات الثلاثة حرفًا فالإسم والفعل والحرف تكون من حالات الكلام الثلاثة التي‏  وضعها العرب بالوضع العربي

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional ʿArabic rules.  Undoubtedly, ʿArabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَفْظـًا (expressed),  مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that ʿArabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (ʿAlī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مَـرَكَّبًا , ʿArabic speech is composed of two or more words7 – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬(ʿAbdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحُـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَذْهَبُ (he is going), and the ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs – their purpose is not completely understood until they are placed next to another word.  They are like: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ and so if you say: هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ (did he go) and مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ (from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏‮ ‬‬ And so, الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have been regulated with conventional ʿArabic rules.

تَنْبِيه  – Note / Rule in Arabic 

وقلنا عند النحويين أنّ‏ ‬الكلام العربي‏ ‬أن‏ ‬يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏ ‬أن‏ ‬يكون لفظًا وأن‏ ‬يكون مركبًا وأن‏ ‬يكون مفيدًا وأن‏ ‬يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏ ‬فخرج الكلام عند اللغويين عن قولنا عند النحويين فهو عندهم كلّ‏ ‬قولٍ‏ ‬مفردٍ‏ ‬كَزيدٍ‏ ‬أو مركّبٍ‏  ‬كَقَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬أو ما حصل به الافهام سواء أكان لفطًا أم لم‏ ‬يكن كأشارة وكتابة فالأشارة مثلاً‏ ‬إذا قلت لك أَوَصَلتَ‏ ‬أَمْسًافأشرْتَ‏ ‬إليّ‏ ‬بحركة رأسك رفعًا وخفضًافأناأفهم أنّك تقول لي‏ ‬نَعَمْ‏  ‬وخرج الكلام عند الفقهاء فهو عندهم ما بطل الصلاة من حرفٍ‏ ‬مُفْهَمٍ‏ ‬كَقافٍ‏ ‬=‬‏ ((‬ق‏)) ‬أو عينٍ‏ ‬=‬‏ ((‬ع‏)) ‬أو حرفين‏ ‬

وإنْ‏ ‬لم‏ ‬يُفهَمَا كَمِنْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَنْ‏ ‬وخرج الكلام‏  ‬عندالـمتكلّميين أيّ‏ ‬علماء التوحيد فهو عندهم عبارة عن الـمعنى القائم بذات اللّه تعالى الخالى عن حرف والصوت و قال الله في‏ ‬كتابه الكريم‏: ‬هُوَ‏ ‬الذِي‏ ‬أَنْزَلَ‏ ‬عَلَيْكُمُ‏ ‬الْكِتَابَ‏ ‬مِنْهُ‏ ‬ءَايَات‏ ‬ٌ‏ ‬مُّحْكَمَاتٌ‏ ‬هُنَّ‏ ‬أُمُّ‏ ‬الْكِتَابِ‏ ‬وَأُخَرُ‏ ‬مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ‏ ‬فقال الله تعالى عن هذه الآيات‏: ‬وَمَا‏ ‬يَعْلَمُ‏ ‬تَاوِيلَهُو‏ ‬إِلاَّ‏ ‬اللّهُ‏ ‬فعند الـمتكلّميين‏  ‬تَاوِيل الآيات قائم باللّه كلامًا وإنْ‏ ‬ما أنرل اللّة علينا عنها ءاياتًا أو حرفًا أو صوتًا‏  ‬

تَنْبِيه  – Note / Rule in English

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on fourthings.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏ ‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning  الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayåts) that are clear and these are foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayåts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6 

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as  الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وأَقْسَامُهُ‏ ‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏ ‬إِسْمٌ‏ ‬وَفِعْلٌ‏ ‬وَحَرْفٌ‏ ‬جَاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنًى‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

The phrase وَاَقْـسَامُـهُ consist of و which is وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و – the waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) and اَقْـسَامُُ which is مبتدأ (a subject noun)8 in the case of rafʿ, and that is because it is the noun which begins the sentence. اَقْـسَامُ is also المضاف -[which literally means the noun which has had something constructed to it or placed next to it and ــهُ  is an attached pronoun which is standing in the place of a noun which is مضاف إليه9 – (which literally means: the thing which has been constructed to it or placed next to it).   That is to say, ــهُ is the part of speech which has been constructed and placed side by side with  اَقْسَامُُ and it is standing in the place of a noun which is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The pronoun ــهُ is مَـبْنِى  (fixed  in its construction) on ḍammah and therefore, the inflective change can not be seen at its end. The pronounــهُhas been constructed toأَقْـسَامُ to show a relationship between a possessed thing and its possessor. The possessor is ــهُ(its) which is standing in the place of the noun (‏ ‬الكلام) and the thing being possessed is  أَقْسَامُ (parts)10.

ثَـلاثَـةٌ is خبر اَقْـسَام (the predicate of the subject noun  اَقْسَامُ) and is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

اِسْـمٌ is بَـدَلُ‏ ‬بَـعْضٍ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬كُـلٍّ (a substitute word which is a portion of the whole amount) or بَـدَلُ‏ ‬مُـفَصِّلٍ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬مُجْـمَلٌ (a substitute word that has been mentioned in place the whole)11 that whole is noun  ثَـلاثَـةٌ (three) which is in the case of rafʿ.  The substitute for a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case rafʿ.   The sign that demonstrates that اِسْـمٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

وَفِـعْلٌ is a phrase which consist of حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) وَ and the noun فِـعْلٌ which is مطعوف عليه (conjoined or linked  to it  [اِسْمٌ] by وَ.  The noun that is linked to a noun in the case of rafʿ by the conjunction وَ is also in the case rafʿ.  The sign that demonstrates that  فِعْلٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

وَحَـرْفٌ is a phrase which consist of حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) وَ and the noun حَرْفٌ which is مطعوف عليه (conjoined or linked  to it  [اِسْمٌ] by وَ.  The noun that is linked to a noun in the case of rafʿ by the conjunction وَ is also in the case rafʿ.  The sign that demonstrates that حَرْفٌ in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

جَاءَ is فعل ماض (a past tense verb) and فاعله (its doer)  is fixed in its condition on the fat-ḥah  and therefore its end cannot be change. Its فاعله (its doer) is a permissibly concealed pronoun which implies that ‏ ‬هُوَ is the doer.  هُوَ refers back to the noun حَرْفٌ.

لـِـمَعَنىً is a phrase which consist of حرف الجر (the preposition)  لـِ and  مَـعْنَىً which is المجرور بحرف جرّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition). The sign which demonstrates that معنىً is in the case in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which has not been affixed to its end, because the last letter of معنى is ى (alif maqsuurah) and its pronunciation with kasrah would be burdensome to pronounce12.  The root of معنىً is مَـعَنِي with the letter يِ vowelized with kasrah. The letter that preceded the yaa was alif carried fat-ḥah. Two sukuuns would have come together, the sukuun of alif and the sukuun of tanwīn, and so the alif was dropped to avoid the meeting of these two sukuuns13.

English Translation of the Text:

وَأَقْـسَامُــــهُ (And its parts)ثَـلاَثَةٌ‏ ‬(are three):إِسْـمٌ(a noun) and فِـعْلٌ (a verb) and حَرْفٌ‏ ‬جَاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with a meaning14).

Explanation of Text in English:

And its parts are three: إِسْـمٌ (a noun) – like:زَيْـدٌ (Zayd) and رَجُـلٌ(man), and; فِـعْلٌ (a verb) – like: ضَـرَبَ (He beat) in the past tense, يَـضْرِبُ (He beats) in the present tense and إِضْرِبْ (Beat) in the command tense; and حَـرْفٌ‏ ‬جَـاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter coming with a meaning) -that is to say one letter by itself or two or three letters joined together that have a specific meaning like: هَـلْ (an interrogative particle that introduces a question) andفِـي(A preposition meaning ‘in’ or ‘into’ among other things) and لَـمْ (a particle of negation that is used to negate the occurrence of an action in the past).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬فَالِإسْمُ‏ ‬يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِالْخَفْضِ‏ ‬وَالتَّنْوِينِ‏ ‬وَدُخُولِ‏ ‬الأَلِفِ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمِ‏  ‬وَحُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْخَفْضِ‏ ‬وَهِيَ‏: ‬مِنْ‏ ‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏ ‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏ ‬وَرُبَّ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالْكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمُ‏ ‬وَحُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ‏ ‬وَهِيَ‏ ‬الْوَاوُ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالتَّاءُ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

فَـالإسْـمُ is a phrase which consist of the noun  إسم, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and the particle فَـ which is  فاء الفصيحة (the clarifying faa)15. The noun الاسم is مبتدأ (a subject noun) in the case of rafʿ by virtue of the fact that it begins the sentence.  The sign that demonstrates الإسْـمُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

يُـعْرَفُ is a فعل مضارع مبني للـمجهول (a present tense verb constructed on the pattern of الـْـمجْهُول [the passive voice])16 and it is in the case of rafʿ. The sign that demonstrates يُـعْرَفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  فاعل (The doer of the action) is  represented by a  permissibly concealed pronoun that implies هو is the doer. هو refers back to and is standing in the place of the noun الاسم. The  sentence which is formed from the passive voice verb يُـعْرَفُ and the permissibly concealed pronoun هو is standing in place of a predicate noun that is case of raf17.

بِـالْـخَفْضِ is a phrase which consists of the particle بـِ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition), the noun خَـفْض and the prefix الْ which causes خَـفْض to be definite and specific.  الخفض is also مجرور بالجارّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that الْـخَفْضِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  The preposition بـِ is also phrasally linked to the verb يعرف in its expression and so you say:  ‏‬يعرف بـ.   The preposition بـِ and its object الخفض along with the verb يعرف is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate for the subject noun الاسم).  This is because الاسم comes before18 يعرف.  The noun  الْـخَفْض is also  معطوف (a noun that has  another noun conjoined to it).

وَالتّنْوِينِ is a phrase which consist of the particle وَ which is حرف العطف (the conjoining particle), the noun تَـنْوِين and the prefix الْ which causes تَـنْوِين to be definite and specific.  التّنوين is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [الخفض] by the conjunction و.  The noun الخفض is in the case of jarr therefore التّنوين which is conjoined to it is also in the case of jarr.  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that التّنْوِينِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

ودُخُـولِ is a phrase which consists of و which حرف العطف (the particle of conjunction) and the noun  دخول  which is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it ([التّنوين]) by the conjunction و.  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that دُخُـولِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.   دخول is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الاَلِـفِ consist of the noun أَلِـف and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الاَلِف is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [دخول]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  الاَلِـف is also  معطوف ( a conjoined noun).

وَاللاَّمِ is a phrase which consist of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction), the noun لام and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and.  اللام is مطعوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [الالف]).  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that اللاَّمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to the end.   اللام is also مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [دخول]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وحُـرُوفِ is a phrase which consists of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and حروف which is معطوف عليه ( that which has been conjoined to it [دخول].   The word conjoined to another word in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that حُـرُوفِ is the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  حروف is also  مضاف (a constructed noun).

الخَـفْضِ consist of the noun خفض, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الخَفْضِ is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [ حروف]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction). The sign which demonstrates that الخَـفْضِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَهِـيَ is a phrase consists of و which is  وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive19 و  and هِـيَ which is ضمير منفصل (an independent pronoun) هي.  هي is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence), and مبني (fixed in its constructed on the vowel fat-ḥah) which is unchangeable.  هي is standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ, however, because هي is مبني (fixed in its construction on an unchangeable vowel), there is no sign at its end to show that it is in the case of raf….  Therefore, its case of rafʿ is implied.

مِـنْ‏ ‬وَ‏إِلَـى وَ‏عَـنْ‏ ‬وَ‏عَـلَى وَ‏فِـي‏ ‬وَ‏رُبَّ ‏‬وَ‬الْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬الْـكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّم is a phrase which consists of مِنْ‏ which  is معطوف ( a conjoined noun) and ‬إِلَـى‏ ‬, ‬عَـنْ‏ ‬, ‬عَـلَى‏ ‬, ‬فِـي‏ ‬, ‬رُبَّ which are مطعوفات عليه (linked to it [من]) by the particle of conjunction و.  The words  مِـنْ‏ ‬, إِلَـى‏ ‬, ‬عَـنْ‏ ‬, ‬عَـلَى‏ ‬, ‬فِـي‏ ‬, ‬رُبَّ are all standing in the place of a noun in the case of  rafʿ which is الخَـبْر (the predicate) for هي.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is an implied ḍammah which cannot be affixed to the end of any of them, because they are مبنية (fixed in their construction; the final vowel for each of them is not changeable under any circumstance).  They also cannot be change at their end لِـمُحَاكَـاتِـهَا لِـصُورَتِـهَا بالنَّص فقط (because they all have been expressed in their fixed condition only to illustrate a point of grammar in the text).  As for الباءُ , الكَافُ ,اللاَّم, they are also مطعوفات عليه (linked to it [من]) by the particle of conjunction و, and they in the case of rafʿ.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah, which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

وَحُـرُوفِ is a phrase which consist of و  which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and حروف is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [ حروف in the phrase حروف الخفض] which is mentioned above).    The  sign which  demonstrates that حُـرُوفِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.   حُـرُوف is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الَقسَمِ is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it [ حروف]) and as a result, it is  مجرور‏ ‬بالإضافة ( a noun in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَهِـيَ الوَاوُ is a phrase which consist of the particle و which is  وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و – the waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) and هي which is  ضمير‏ ‬منفصل (an independent pronoun).  هي is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence), and مبني (fixed in its constructed on the vowel fat-ḥah) which is unchangeable.  هي is standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ.  However, because هي is مبني (fixed in its construction on an unchangeable vowel), therefore, the vowel on its last letter can’t be changed.  The noun الوَاوُ which follows هي and the nouns conjoined to it are the predicate of هي and therefore, they are in the case of rafʿ.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah, which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

‏ ‬والْبَاءُis a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and الْبَاء which is مضاف علي الوَاوُ (a noun constructed to the noun الوَاوُ that has been mentioned above) and as a result, the noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.

‬والتَّاءُ  is a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and التَّاءُ which is مضاف علي الوَاوُ (a noun constructed to the noun الوَاوُ that has been mentioned above) and as a result, the noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.

English Translation of the Text:

فَالإِسْمُُ (And so the noun) يُعْرَف بِـ (is known by)‏ ‬الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering 20[of the vowel]) وَتَنْوِينِ ‏ ‬(and tanwiin21 [adding the nuun sound to the end of the word]);

وَدُخُـولِ‏ ‬الأَلِـفِ‏ ‬اللاَّمِِ‏ ‬(and the prefixing22 of the alif and the laam – اَلْْ [the]);

and وَحَرُوفُ‏ ‬الْخَفْضِ (and the particles of khafḍ [letters] of lowering23 and they are:

;مِنْ‏ ‬وَإلَى وَعَنْ‏ ‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏ ‬وَرُبَّ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالْكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمُ

وَحَرُوفُ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ (and the particles of swearing)24 and they are:  

.الْواوُ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالتَّاءُ

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

فالإسم‏ ‬يعرف بالخفض كقولك مررت بالرّجلِ‏ ‬والغلامِ‏ ‬ِوبالتّنوين كقولك زيدٌ‏ ‬ورجلٌ‏ ‬وبدخول الألف واللاّم كقولك الرّجلُ‏ ‬والغلامُ‏ ‬وبحروف الخفض وهي‏ ‬من وإلى وعن وعلى وفي‏ ‬وربّ‏ ‬والباء والكاف واللام وحروف القسم وهي‏ ‬الواو والباء والتّاء كقولك سرتُ‏ ‬من البصرةِ‏ ‬إلى الكوفةِ‏ ‬ورحلتُ‏ ‬عن البلدِ‏ ‬وصعدت على الخيلِ‏ ‬وجلست في‏ ‬البيتِ‏ ‬وربّ‏ ‬رجلٍ‏ ‬كريمٍ‏ ‬لقِيته وكتبت بالقلمِ‏ ‬وزيدٌ‏ ‬كالأسدِ‏ ‬والحمدُ‏ ‬للّهِ‏ ‬وواللّهِ‏ ‬وباللّهِ‏ ‬وتاللّهِِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الإِسْمُ (The noun) is known by:

الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering of the25 vowel, that is to say placing the vowel beneath the noun) as you would say: مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِالرَّجُلِ‏ ‬وَالْغُلاَمِ (I passed by the man and the boy);

and by التَّنْوِينِ‏ (tanwin) as you would say:زَيْدٌ (Zaydun) and رَجُـلٌ (rajulun) and مُومِنَاتٌ(muuminaatun);

and by دُخُولِ‏ ‬الأَلِفِ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمِ (the prefixing of alif and laam = اَلْ to the front of the word) – as you would say: اَلرَّجُـلُ‏ ‬وَالْـغُلاَمُ (the man and the servant boy) formed from the words:رَجُـلٌ and غُلاَمٌ;

and by the prefixing of حُـرُوفِ‏ ‬الْـخَفْضِ (the letters [particles] of khafḍ [lowering]) mainly prepositions – which cause the noun to carry  كَسْـرَة = ــِـ  / ــٍـ   as its final vowel) and they are: مِـنْ (from), إلَـى (to), عَـنْ (about, from), عَـلَى(on), فِي (in, into), رُبَّ (how many a…), اَلْـظبَاءُ = ب (by, in, with), اَلْـكَافُ‏ ‬= كَ (like, as), اللاّمُ =‏ ‬لِ (to, belonging to, for) as you would say: سِرْتُ‏ ‬مِنَ‏ ‬الْـبَصْرَةِ‏ ‬إِلَى‏ ‬الْكُوفَةِ‏ ‬(I traveled from Baṣrah to Kuufah), رَحَـلْتُ‏ ‬عَـنِ‏ ‬الْـبَلَدِ (I departed from the country),  صَـعَدتُ‏ ‬عَـلَى الـْـخَـيْـلِ  (I climbed upon the stallion),  جَـلَسْتُ‏ ‬فِـي‏ ‬الْـبَـيْتِ (I sat in the house), رُبَّ‏ ‬رَجُلٍ‏ ‬كَرِيمٍ‏ ‬لَقِيتُهُ (Many a noble man I have met)27, كَتَـبْتُ‏ ‬بِالْقَلَمِ  (I wrote with the pen), زَيْدٌ‏ ‬كَالأَسَدِ (Zayd  is like the lion), اَلْحَمْدُ‏ ‬لِلَّهِ (The praise belongs to Allah);

and by حُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ (the particles for swearing) and they are   اَلْوَاوُ  = و (by) and  اَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by) and  اَلْـتَاءُ = تَ (by) like when you say: وَاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) and بِـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) تَاللَّهِ(I swear by Allah).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَالْفِِِِعْلُ‏ ‬يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِقَدْ‏ ‬وَالسِّينِِِِِِِ‏ ‬وَسَوْفَ‏ ‬وَتَاءِِِِ‏ ‬التَّاْنِيثِِِ السَّاكِنَةِ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

وَ‏‬الْـفِعْلُ يُـعْرَفُ بقد is a phrase which consists of  و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) which is also وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و) and the noun الفِعْل which معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [فالاسْـمُ] which has been previously mentioned above. وَ‏‬الْـفِعْلُ يُـعْرَفُ بقد is conjoined to the sentence that began with فالاسم or is a resumption of the discussion about the parts of اَلْـكَلاَمُ.

الفعل is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence) in the case of rafʿ by the very fact that it is at the beginning of the sentence.The sign which demonstrates that الْـفِعْلُ is in the the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to the end of it.

 يُـعْرَفُ is a phrase which consists of فعل مضارع للمجهول  (a present tense verb in the case of  rafʿ constructed on the pattern of الْمـجْهُول  (the passive voice) and a concealed pronoun which is نائب الفاعل (the stand in for doer) and which implies هو يُعْرَفُ  is standing in the place of a predicate noun in the case of rafʿ which would be خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject noun) الفعل  – that noun is مَعْرُوفُ – and so you would say: فالفعل مَـعْرُوفٌ‏ ‬بِـ. The sign which demonstrates that  يُـعْرَفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

بقد is a phrase which consist of  بِـ which is ‏ ‬حرف جرّ (a preposition) and قد which is حرف تحقيق و تقليل (a particle of absolute certainty and infrequency) that is standing in the place of  مجرورٌ‏ ‬بالالجارّ (a noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition).  The preposition بـِ is also linked to the verb يعرف in expression and so you say: ‏ ‬يعرف بـِ.   The sign which demonstrates that قد is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني  (fixed in its  construction) on sukuun and لِـمُحَاكَـاتِـهَا لِـصُورَتِـهَا بالنَّص فقط  (because it has been quoted as it is in its fixed condition only to illustrate a point of grammar in the text); that point is that الفعل is يعرف known بـِ (by) the particle قد.  That is to say, if you are try to discover which word is the verb in a sentence which has قد in it, the verb is identifiable by قد which precedes it and is a sign of it.

والسِّينِ is a phrase which consists of و which is  حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction)  and السِّينِ which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]).  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in  the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that السِّينِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬سَـوْفَ is a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and سوف which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]) and which is standing in the place of  مجرور بالجارّ (a noun in the case jarr due to the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because  سَـوْفَ is مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and لمحاكاته لصورته بالنَّص (because of it having been quoted in its fixed construction, only to illustrate a point in the text); that point is that الفعل is يعرف بسوف (known by the particle سَـوْفَ).  That is to say, if you are try to discover which word is the verb in a sentence which has سَـوْفَ in it, the verb is identifiable by سوف which precedes it and is a sign of it.

وتَاءِ is a phrase consisting of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and تَاءِ which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]).  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.   The sign which demonstrates that تَـاءِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which is clearly affixed to its end.  تَاءِ is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

التّأْنِيثِ is ‏ ‬مضاف إليه (a noun that has been conjoined to it [تاء]) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that التّأْنِيثِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which is clearly affixed to its end.

السَّاكَِـنةِ is نعت (the adjective) for the noun تاء.  The adjective of a noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that السَّاكَِنةِ is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

وَاَلْـفِعْلُ (And the verb)يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـقَدْ (is known by قَـدْ (qad28وَالسِّين (and siin =سَ [sa]) وَسَـوْفَ (and sawfa)  وَتَاءُ‏ ‬التَّأْنِيثِ‏ ‬السَّاكِنَةِ (and the taa of femininity bearing sukuun).

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

والفعل‏ ‬يعرف بـقد كقولك قَدْ‏ ‬قَامَ‏ ‬وقَدْ‏ ‬يَقُومُ‏ ‬وبالـسّين وسَوْفَ‏ ‬كقولك سَيَقُومُ‏ ‬وسَوْفُ‏ ‬يَقُومُ‏ ‬وبـتاء التّأنِيثِ‏ ‬السّاكنة كقولك قَامَتْ‏ ‬وقَاَلتْ

Explanation of Text in English:

The verb is known by قَـدْ‏ ‬as you would say:قَـدْ‏ ‬قَامَ (He definitely stood up) and قَـدْ‏ ‬يَـقُومُ (He might stand) and by السَّينِ (the particle سَ) and the particle سَوْفَ as you would say: سَيَقُومُ (He will stand) and سَوْفَ‏ ‬يَقُومُ (He will stand) and by تاَءِ‏ ‬التَّأنِـيثِ‏ ‬السَّاكِنَةِ (the taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun29 = تْ  – like when you say:  قَامَتْ (she stood) and قَالَتْ (she spoke).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَالـْحَرْفُ‏ ‬مَا لاَ‏ ‬يَصْلُحُ‏ ‬مَعَهُ‏ ‬دَليِلُ‏ ‬الإِسْمِ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬دَلِيلُ‏ ‬الْفِعْلِ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

والْحَـرْفُ مَـا لاَ يَـصْلُحُ  is a phrase which consists of  و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) which is also وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و) and the noun الحرف which معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [فالاسْـمُ] which has been previously mentioned above. والْحَـرْفُ مَـا لاَ يَـصْلُحُ which is conjoined to the sentence that began with فالاسم or is a resumption of the discussion about the parts of اَلْـكَلاَمُ.

الْحَـرْفُ is also مبتدأ (a subject noun) in the case of rafʿ by the virtue of the fact that it is at the beginning of the sentence.  The sign which demonstrates that الحَـرْفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to the end of it.

ماis اسم موصول (an relative noun) which is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject  noun) الحرف  and standing in place of a noun that is the case of  rafʿ.  The sign that it is in the case of  rafʿ is a ḍammah which cannot be constructed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construcion) on sukuun.

لاis حرف نفي (a particle of negation).

يصلحُ is a present tense verb and فاعله (its doer) which is a permissibly concealed pronoun that implies هو is the doer.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which is clearly affixed to the end of it.

مَعَهُ  is a phrase which consists of مَعَ which is ظرف مكان(an adverb of place)  مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and ـهُ which is ضَـمِير مُـتَّصَل (an attached pronoun) مبني (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah .   مَـعَ is also مضاف (a constructed noun) and ـهُis مضاف إليهis a noun30 which has been constructed to it (مَـعَ) and as a result, it is standing in the place of   مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that ـهُ is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah.

دَلِـيلُis فاعل (the doer) of the verb يصلحand is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  دَلِيلُ is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الاِسْـمِ is مضاف إليه  (a noun which has been conjoined to it [دليل]) and therefore, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that الاِسْـمِ  is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

ولاis a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and لا which is حرف نفي (a particle of negation) .

دَلِـيلُ is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [the first دليل] mentioned above) and as a result it is in the case of rafʿ.  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that  دَلِـيلُ is in the case of rafʿ is a dammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  This second دليل is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

 الْفِعْلِ is مضاف إليه is (a noun conjoined to it [دليل]) and as a result,  it is مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign that demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

وَالْـحَـرْفُ (And the particle31 is) مَـا (that which), ‏ ‬لاَ‏ ‬يَـصْلُحُ‏ ‬مَـع (are not permissible with it) دَلِـيلُ‏ ‬الاِسْـمِ (the distinguishing signs of the noun)‏ ‬وَدَلِـيـلُ‏ ‬الْـفِعْــلِ (nor the distinguishing signs of the verb). (Note:That is to say, the particle is the part of speech which can not have the distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb affixed to its end.)

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

والحرف ما لا‏ ‬يصلح معه دليل الإسم ولا دليل الفعل لأنه لا‏ ‬يقبل علامات نحو ال ولا تنوين ولا‏ ‬يدخل حرف الخفـض عليه‏  ‬ولا قد أو السين أو سوف فلا تقول الـْمِِِنْ‏ ‬أو مِنًا أو إِلَي‏ ‬هَلْ‏ ‬لا تقول قََدْ‏ ‬فِِِِي‏ ‬أو سَعَلَى أو سََوْفَ‏ ‬عَنْ‏ ‬ ولو أنّ‏ ‬الحرف خالٍ‏ ‬من العلامات فإنه علامة لغيره‏ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَـرْفُ (the particle) is the (part of speech) for which none of the  distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb are permitted, because it is void of signs.  For  instance,  it  does  not  receive ال nor tanwiin (ــً‏ ‬,‏ ‬ــٍـ‏ ‬, ــٌـ‏ ‬) nor do the prepositions ( عَنْ‏ ‬،‏ ‬إِلَى‏ ‬،‏ ‬مِنْ etc.) come in front of it nor  do قد or سـَ or سوف come in front of it.  You can not say الـْـمِِِنْ or مِنًا or إِلَي‏ ‬هَلْ nor do you say قَدْ‏ ‬فِي  or سَعَلَى or سَوْفَ‏ ‬عَنْ.  Although الْحَرْف (the particle) is void of distinguishing signs, it is a distinguishing sign for other words. It shows the purpose of the word that follows it and its role in a sentence clause or phrase, like when you say: الإمامُ فِـي الْـمَسْجِـدِ (The imaam is in the masjid): فِي is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and الْـمَسْجِـدِ is مَجْرور (an object of the preposition).

Endnotes:

1 آجَرُّوم (Aajarruum) meansصُوفِي (suufii; pious man) in the Berber language.

2 The Basmalah is: بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم

3 ضميرالفصل (The pronoun of separation) helps to clarify the relationship between the word which precedes ضميرالفصلand the word that comes after it.‏  ‬It is called  ضمير(a pronoun) because it resembles the pronoun in its structure.  It is called ضمير‏ ‬فصل (a pronoun of separation) because it distinguishes between what is خبر (a predicate) and نعت (an adjective).  It is also used to emphasize the subject.  If the pronoun of separation is not placed between some words that are adjacent to each other, confusion may arise – especially if the text is un-vowelized – as to whether the second word is the adjective for the first word or is its predicate.  If you say for instance: عَـلاَّلٌ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِدُthe relationship  between  علاَّلٌ and الْمُجْتَهِـدُ  in their   construction can be understood to be a subject / predicate relationship  and so you can say  (ʿAllaal is the mujtahid) or it  can be understood to be a noun / adjective relationship  and so you can say (…Allaal the mujtahid).  However, if what is desired is a subject / predicate relationship exclusively, then  ضمير الفصل (The pronoun of seperation) must come between the two words – and so you say:  علاَّلٌ‏ ‬هُـوَ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِـدُ.  When the pronoun of separation هُـوَ is placed between them, the word that precedes هو which isعلاَّلٌ‏ ‬is understood to be المبتدأ(the subject) and the word that followsهو which isالْمُجْتَهِد is understood to be  الخبر (the predicate) of علاَّلٌ and therefore علاَّلٌ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِد (ʿAllaal is the mujtahid) . 

4 اللَّفْظ (Utterance or expression) is a term which means : throwing and hurling that is to say, the emission and expulsion (of sound).  It is said, لَفَظْتُ‏ ‬كَذَا كَذَا “I expressed or uttered such and such” which means I hurled (emitted) or threw (expelled) sounds (into the air) which consisted of some of the letters of the alphabet – like when you say: Zayd which consist of the letters ز and ي and د

5 That is to say, speech must be composed of two or more words.

6  The phrase بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (‘in accordance with customary usage’ [or conventional rules]) as mentioned in the above statement, means the expressions used by the Arabs out habit or custom for speaking, reading, and writing which they agreed upon and which eventually became regulated by conventional rules of grammar.The rules of customary usage evolved to become the rules of Arabic grammar.  (In accordance with the rules of customary usage) means [in accordance with] Arabic rules of grammar.  It means to make an expression the representation of the meaning of something like زَيْدٌ.   زَيْدٌ is an Arabic expression which the Arabs have constructed to represent the meaning of something or the name of it.  

7 A one word expression is not considered to be  كَـلاَم (speech) according to the Arab  grammarians, unless that word has another implied word adjoined to it.  For instance if you say: مَـنْ‏ ‬أَبُـوكَ  (Who is your father?) and the reply is مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad). Although one word ‘Muhammad’ is expressed four words: مُحَـمَّد أَبِـي (Muhammad is my father) are impliedor when you say: إذْهَـبْ (Go), one word is expressed but two words:  أَنْتَ إذْهَبْ (You go) are implied.  

8 The subject noun is normally in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah or a substitute forḍammah unless it is preceded by إنَُor a particle similar toإنَّ.  In that case, the subject must be in the case of naṣb. ‏ ‬

9 الْـمُضَافُand الْـمُضَافُ‏ ‬إِليْهِ are two parts of a construct known as the iḍaafah construction.  The iḍaafah construction demonstrates one of five relationship: 1. the relationship between a possesed thing and the possessor of it, like when you say: بَيْتُ‏ ‬الرَّجُلُ (the house of the man); 2. the relationship between (a noun and its adjective), like when you say: إِمْـرَأَةُ‏ ‬الْـجَـمِيلَةِ (the woman of beauty [that is to say: the beautiful woman]) or كَـرِيمُ‏ ‬النَّفْسِ (the generous of spirit [ that is to say: the generous spirit]); 3. the relationship between a masdar (verbal noun) and (the noun over which it has verbal force, like when you say: قَـتْلُ‏ ‬الْـعَدُوِّ (the killing of the enemy); 4. the relationship between the doer noun andthe receiver of its action, like when you say: فَـارِسُ‏ ‬الْخَـيْلِ (the rider of the stallion); and 5. the dharf makaan (the adverb of place) and the noun that accompanies it, like when you say: مَـعَ‏ ‬مُحَـمَّدٍ(with Muhammad) and قَـوْقَ‏ ‬الأرْضَِ(above the ground). 

10 وَاَقْـسَامُـهُ (its parts) is standing in the place of the statement  وَاَقْـسَامُ الكَلَامِ (the parts of speech).

11 The discussion is about three things i.e. the three parts of speech. When all three things are discussed, it will be said, “the whole or entire matter has been discussed, however since إسم is  only one of the three parts of speech that has been mentioned, and only part of the whole discussion, or one of three things that will be discussed,  the role or purpose of the noun إسم in the sentence is as بَدَلُ‏ ‬مُفَصِّلٍ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬مُجْمَلٌ (a substitute word that has been mentioned in place the whole).

12  ى (Alif maqsuurah) is a letter which is مبني (fixed in its construction) on the vowel fat-ḥah which means that it cannot be inflected to receive any vowel other than fat-ḥah, because such inflection would be burdensome on the tongue in its expression.

13 That is to say the word مَعَنىً prior to this change would have been spelled مَعَانً. As a result, this would have caused it to be expressed with sukuun on the alif and sukuun on the nuun. To avoid this the alif was dropped in the spelling, and so مَعَانً became مَعَنىً .

14 حَـرْفٌ‏ ‬جَـاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with a meaning) means:  الـحَـرْفُ يَـدُلُّ عَـلَى مَعْنَى فِي غَيْرِهِ (the particle is a word that shows the meaning [purpose] of another word) that follows it. الْـحُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـعَرَبِـيَّة (The Arabic letters) are divided into two kinds: حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَبَانِـي (the letters of foundation [without meaning]) and حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَعَانِي (the letters  coming with a meaning).  As for حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَبَانِي,  they are the letters of the Arabic alphabet which start with alif = ا and end with the letter yaa = ي.  As for حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَعَانِي,  they are of two kinds: عَـامِـلَةٌ (active) and عَاطِـلَةٌ (passive).  الْـعَامِـلَةُ is حَـرْفٌ (a particle) which causes  change at the end of a word they precede  –  like  حَـــرْفُ‏ ‬الْجرِّ (the particle which causes kasrah to appear at the end of a word) and حَـرْفُ‏ ‬النَّصْبِ (the particle which causes fat-ḥah to appear at the end of a word) and حَرْفُ‏ ‬الْـجَزْمِ (the particle which causes sukuun to appear at the end of a word).  

الْعَاطِلُ is  حَرْفٌ (a particle) which does not cause change at the end of a word – like حَرْفَا الاِسْتِفْهَامِ (the two interrogative particles) أَ and هَلْ which do not cause change to occur at the end of the word they precede.‏ ‬   

15‏ ‬الفاء ‏ ‬is called فاء الفصيحة (the faa which clarifies), because it ‘brings a matter to light’, ‘brings attention to a matter’, ‘it makes a matter plain or clearly apparent’ – in this case, the ‘matter’ being an implied sharṭ (conditional statement). الفاء ushers in a clause which is the conclusion to a conditional statement.  This conclusion statement is called جواب شرط مقدّر (the answer or conclusion to the conditional statement). For example in the case of the conclusional statement  ‬فَـالاِسْـمُ‏ ‬يُـعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـ, it is an answer to an implied conditional statement that has gone unexpressed.   The implied statement being:  إِذَا أَرَدْتَ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬تَـعْرِفَ‏ ‬مَـا‏ ‬يَـتَمَيَّزُ‏ ‬بِـهِ‏ ‬كَـلُّ‏ ‬مِـنَ‏ ‬الاِسمِ‏ ‬وَالْـفِعْلِ‏ ‬وَالْحَـرْفِ‏ (If you desire to know how each noun, verb and particle is distinguished one from the other). The conclusion to this conditional statement will be introduced by فاء الفصيحة and so you say:  ‬فَـالاِسْـمُ‏ ‬يُـعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـ (the noun is known by…) to the end of the statement.    

16 In the passive voice,  the doer of this verb goes unmentioned or is unknown, and what would have been the object of verb in the active voice becomes the subject of the verb in the passive voice, and so you say: “The nounis recognized by such and such signs or conditions”.  In an active voice, the doer of the verb is mentioned and what was the subject of the passive voice becomes the object of the active voice verb, like when you would say, “I recognize the noun when I see such and such signs or conditions.” 

17 That predicate is the noun مَعْروفٌ. like when you  الإسْمُ مَعْروفٌ بِـ (The noun is known by…).  مَعْروفٌ is the predicate of the subject noun الإسْمُ.

18 When a noun in the case of rafʿ precedes the verb,  it is called الْـمُبْتَدأ (the subject). When the noun follows the verb it is called الفاعل (the doer).

19 The waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) or which resumes the statement about a previously mentioned matter

20 الْـخَفْضُ (the lowering of the vowel) is the opposite of  الرَّفْـعُ (raising  of the vowel). It is the placing of the vowel kasrah beneath a letter and so it is said that the vowel has been ‘lowered’.

21 The meaning of the term التَّنْوِينُ tanwiin is  ‘adding of the nuun sound’, that is to say,  the vocalization of a noun with a clear sound of nuun bearing sukuun at the end of it.  

22 That is to say, ‘the placing of alif and laam (ال) at the beginning of a word’.

23 They are called particles of lowering because they cause the last letter of the noun which they are governing to carry the vowel kasrah.  The vowel kasrah is place beneath their last letter and so it is said that the vowel has been ‘lowered’.  They are:

     مِنْ which is used to indicate الإِبْتِدَاء (the beginning of a matter);

    إِلَى  which is used to indicate الإِنْتِهَاء (the end of a matter)

    عَنْ which is used to indicate الْـمُجَاوَزَة (passing beyond)

   عَلَى  which is used to indicate الاِسْتِعْلاَء (elevation)

    فِي  which is used to indicate الظَّرْفِيَة (containment or envelopment)

   رُبَّ  which is used to indicate التَّعْدَاد (enumeration)

  البَاءُ which is used to indicate الْـمَقْرَبَة (proximity or nearness)

الْكَافُ which is used to indicate التَّشْبِيه (comparison)

  اللاَّمُ which is used to indicate الـْمِلْك (possession)

24 The particles of swearing are:

الوَاوُ which precedes the clearly distict noun only – like when you say: وَاللَّهِ and 1-2وَالتِّينِ وَالزَّيْتُونِ ‬وَطُورِسِينِينَ – ﴿من التين

الْـبَاءُ which causes a word to be in the case of khafḍ whether its a clearly distict noun or a pronoun, only if that word is followed by another word or phrase like when you say in the case of a clearly distinct noun:  بِـاللَّهِ شَهِـيدًا – ﴿من النساء 166 and in the case of a pronoun: بِكَ‏ لأَضْرِبَنَّ ,

التَّاء which only precedes  the Name of Allah – like when you say:    57تَاللَّهِ‏ لأكِيدَنَّ‏ ‬أَصْنامَكُمْ – ﴿من الأنبياء      .

25 See footnote 20.

26 The meaning of the termالتنوينtanwiin is  ‘adding the nuun sound’, that is to say,  the vocalization of a noun with a clear sound of nuun bearing sukuun at the end of it,  like when you say: كِتَابٌ وَقَلَمٌ 

Tanwiin is of four kinds: 

1. تنوين التمكين (the tanwiin of possibility) – that is to say, the tanwiin which shows that a noun is fully declinable [having the ability to take all three vowels].  It is affixed to the end of the Arabic noun that is fully inflected and for this reason it is also called تنوين الصرف (the decinable tanwiin).  It is like when you say: رجلٌ‏ ‬‏. ‬رجلٍ‏ ‬‏. ‬رجلاً and excluded from that is the tanwiin for the sound feminine plural like: معلماتٍ and the defective noun like جوارٍ and مقاهٍ;  

2. تنوين المقابلة (the equivalent tanwiin) – which is affixed to the sound feminine plural..  It is equivalent to the nuun at the end of the sound masculine plural like when you say مُـعَلََّمَاتٍ which becomes equivalent to the nuun in the sound masculine plural like when you say مُعَلِّمِينَ

3. تنوين العِوَض  (the substitute tanwiin) which is of three kinds: 

a)  the substitute for a sentence like when tanwiin is affixed to إذ from the words حِـينَئِذٍ and يَوْمَئِذٍ. which are the equivalent of the phrases  حِينَ‏ ‬إِذٍ and يَوْمَ‏ ‬إِذِ respectively; 

b) the substitute for a word like when tanwiin is affixed to كُلّ when you say: كُلٌّ‏ ‬قَائِمٌ (everyone is standing) that is to say كُلُّ‏ ‬إِنْسَانٍ‏ ‬قَائِمٌ (Every man is standing) wherein إنسان is dropped from the speech and replaced by an equivalent tanwiin on كلّ;

c) the substitute for a letter which is affixed to the end noun – like in the words جوارٍ and غواشٍ – both of which are defective and partially declinable. They can only receive dammah or kasrah as a final vowel and so, الحذف (the dropping of the final letter) occurs. – like when you say: هؤلاء ضِوارٍ and مررت بضوارٍ.   The root of the word ضِوارٍ is ضواري  and so, the letter ي has been dropped from the end of it and has been replaced with kasrah  tanwiin  

4. تنوين التّنكير (the tanwiin which is affixed to end of indeclinable nouns  in order to distinguish between a definite and indefinte noun)  – for example: جَاءَ‏ ‬سِبَوَيْهِ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬سِبَوَيْهٍ.  In this, the first example of سبويه is a definite noun in the case of raf ʿ and the second example is an indefinite noun in the case of rafʿ.  The sign of it being in the case of rafʿ is kasrah which is standing in the place of dammah. The form which does not carry tanwiin  سَبَوَيْهِ  is definite. is preferable to السبويه.

27 That is to say, “I have met many men from among noble men” or simply, “I have met many noble men.”

28 Whenقَدْ  is used withالُفِعْلُ‏ ‬الْـمَاضِي(the past tense verb) it is حَرْفُ‏ ‬تَحْقِيقٍ (a particle of confirmation) which is used to emphasize the definite occurrence of an action like when you say: قَـدْ‏ ‬طَلَعَتِ‏ ‬الشَّمْسُ‏ ‬عَلَى الأُفْقِ (The sun has definitely appeared on the horizon).  Whenقَدْ is used with الْفِعْلُ‏ ‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) it is  حَرْفُ‏ ‬تَقْـلِيلٍ (a particle of rarity, infrequency or uncertainty) which is used to express doubt as to whether or not an action will take place like if you say:قَدْ‏ ‬يَجِيءُ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬قَدْ‏ ‬لاَ‏ ‬يَجِيءُ (He may come and he may not come).  However, قَـدْ may also be used with  الْـفِعْلٌ‏ ‬الْـمُضَارِعُasحَـرْفُ‏ ‬تَـحْقِيقٍ  in order to confirm the certainty of  a matter in a statement or conversation like when Allahسُبْحَانَ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬تَعَالَى says in His Noble Book:قَدْ‏ ‬يَعْلَمُ‏ ‬اللَْهُ‏ ‬مَا أَنْـتُمْ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ (Surely Allah knows your condition …) surah 24:64.

29 The taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun (تْ) occurs at the end of the past tense verb in order to show that the pronoun [she] or [it – feminine] is the doer of the verb.

30 In English grammar, is ـهُ (he) classified as a pronoun, but in Arabic grammar it is classified as a noun.   This is because, according to the traditional and classical Arabic grammarian including Ibn Ajurruum the author or this grammar text,  Arabic grammar has three parts of speech: ‏ ‬إِسْـمٌ (noun), فِـعْلٌ (verb) and حَـرْفٌ (particle); whereas according the English grammarians there are eight parts of speech: noun,  pronoun,  adjective,  adverb, verb, preposition, and conjunctions,  and interjection.  In classical Arabic these parts of speech do not disappear, but are classified differently.  In Arabic grammar, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs all fall under the Arabic grammar classification of إِسْـم (noun).  Thus, five of the parts of speech from English grammar are enveloped in the classification for one single Arabic part of speech.   As for the English verb, it is classified the same way in Arabic as it is in English – that is to say, in English, the action word is called the verb.  In Arabic the action word is called فِعْلٌٌٌُُ (action/verb).  The remaining three parts of speech from English grammar: prepositions, conjunctions and interjections fall under the Arabic grammar classification of حَرْفٌ. (In some cases interjectional statements are formed by using nouns as well.)  Althought these eight parts of speech are classified in these categories in Arabic grammar, each one is identified in its category with a specific name.  For example, the adjective is known as ‏ ‬نَـعْتٌ or صِـفَةٌ; the adverb is known as ظَرْفٌ; the preposition is known as  حَـرْفُ‏ ‬جَـرٍّ or جَـارٌّ; the pronoun is known as ضَـمِيرٌ or مُضْمَرٌ.   The relative pronoun is known as إِسْمُ‏ ‬المَوْصُوـلٍ.   The demonstrative pronoun is known as إِسْمُ‏ ‬الإِشَارَةٌ; the conjunction is known as حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَطْفٍ or عَاطِفٌ; The interjection is known as أَصْوَاتٌ or حَرْفُ‏ ‬نِدَاءٍ or حَرْفُ‏ ‬مُنَادَةٍ etc.  

31 الـْحُـرُوفُ(the particles) are divided between: 

(a) those which commonly govern both verbs and nouns, likeحَـرْفَا الاِسْـتِفْهَامِ (the two particles of interrogation) and حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles); 

(b) those  particles which govern nouns  exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـجَـرِّ (the prepositions) and الْـحُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمُشَبَّهَةُ‏ ‬بِـاْلفِعْلِ (the particles which resemble the verb [that is to sayإِنَّ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬أَخْوَاتِهَا -([إِنَّ and its sisters]); 

(c) those particles which govern verbs exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الشَّرْطِ (conditional particles), حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬النَّصْبِ‏ ‬لِـلْمُضَارِعِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of naṣb), and حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـجَـزْمِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of jazm).  All of these particles will be discussed in greater detail in the coming chapters.

 

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَخْفُوضَاتِ

26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be 

in The Case of Khafḍ) 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمَخْفُضَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَقْسَامٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالحَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالِإضَافَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَخْفُوضِ‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّا الـْمَخْفُوضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْحَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬رُبَّوَبِمُذْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْذُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّا مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالإِضَافَةِ‏‮ ‬‬فَنَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَالذِي‏‮  ‬‬يُقَدِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَوْبُ‏‮ ‬‬خَزٍّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬سَاجٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَاتَمُ‏‮ ‬‬حَدِيدٍ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الـْمَخْفُضَاتُ (the nouns caused to be in  the case of khaf)‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَقْسَامٍ‏‮ ‬‬(are three kinds): مَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالحَرْفِ (the nouns caused to be in the case of khaf by الْـحَرْف [the particle]) وَمَخْفُــوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالِإضَافَةِ (and noun which is caused to be in the case of khaf by الإِضَافَة (the iḍaafah construction)‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَخْفُوضِ (and noun which is caused to be in the case of khaf as a result of following a noun which has been placed in khaf).  فَأَمَّا (As for) مَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالحَرْفِ (the noun which is caused to be in the case of khaf by the particle), ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ (it is) مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِ (what is caused to be in the case of khaf by):

مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِحَروفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬رُبَّ ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِمُذْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْذُ

وَأَمَّا (As for) مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالإِضَافَةِ (that which is caused to be in the case of khaf by the iḍaafah construction), فَنَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬(and so it is like when you say): غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd); وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬(and it is  of two kinds): مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬ (that which implies اللاَّم(the preposition li-) وَمَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِن (and that which is  implies the preposition min). فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالاَّمِ (As for that which implies the preposition li-), نَحْوُ (is like when you say): غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (a servant of Zayd) وَالذِي‏‮  ‬‬يُقَدِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ(while that which implies the preposition min) نَحْوُ (is like when you say): ثَوْبُ‏‮ ‬‬خَزٍّ (a garment of silk) وَبَابُ‏‮ ‬‬سَاجٍ and (a door of teak wood) وَخَاتَمُ‏‮ ‬‬حَدِيدٍ and (a ring of iron).      ‏‮ ‬‬ 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمخفوضات تـنقسم إلى ثلاثة أنواع نوع‏‮ ‬‬يُخفض بالحرف ونوع‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالإضافة ونوع‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالتَّبَعِيَّة والذي‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالحرف هو كل إسم دخل عليه حرف من حروف الخفض كزيد والسطْح ورجل من قولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وجَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى السَّطْحِ‏‮ ‬‬ورُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كَرِيمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لَقِيْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬فإنها أسماء مخفوضة بدخول حرف الخفض عليها وهي‏‮ ‬‬البَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وعَلَى ورُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأمّا حروف الخفض فقد مرّ‏‮ ‬‬ذكرها أوّلاً‏‮ ‬‬فلا حاجة إلى الـمراجعة والذي‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالإضافة هو كل إسم نُسب إليه‏‮ ‬‬غيره على‏‮ ‬‬غير إسنادِ‏‮ ‬‬كزيد من قولك‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ فإنه إسم مخفوض منسوب إليه‏‮ ‬‬غيره وهو‏‮ ‬‬غلام وأمّا الـمخفوض بالتّبعية فقد تقدّم الكلام عليه في‏‮ ‬‬باب التّوابع‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَخْفُوضَاتُ (The nouns that are caused to be in the case of khafḍ) are of three kinds – one kind which is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by الْـحَرْف (the particle) which precedes them.  Another kind is caused to be in khafḍ due to الإِضَافَة (the  i∂aafah construction) and another kind is ‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالتَّبَعِيَّة caused to be in khafḍ as a result of following a noun which has been placed in khafḍ.  And so the one which is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by الْـحَرْف is every noun which has a حَرْفٌ (particle) from the particles of khafḍ preceding it, like: َزَيْد ( Zayd) and  السَّطْحُ (the roof) and الرَّجُلُ (the man) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ (I passed by Zayd) and جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى السَّطْحِ (I sat on the roof) and رُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كَرِيمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لَقِيتُهُ (many a noble man I have met).  And these are nouns which have been caused to be in the case of khafḍ by placing the حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ in front of them. They are the بِـ and عَلَى and رُبَّ.

As for حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ, they have already been discussed previously in the beginning.  And so there is no necessity to repeat them.  That which is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by الإِضَافَة the  iḍaafah construction) is every noun which has had another noun linked to it which is not its predicate – like زَيْد when you say: غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd).  And so زَيْد is the noun is in khafḍ which has been linked with the other noun and that noun is غُلاَم.

As for the noun which is caused to be in the case of  khafḍ because of يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالتَّبَعِيَّة (following a noun that is in the case of khafḍ), there has already been a discussion about it in the chapter dealing with التَّوَابِع (the appositives).

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن أحكام الإضافة ما‏‮ ‬‬يكون بتقدير اللام كغُلاَم زَيّدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فإن تقديره‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ومنها ما‏‮ ‬‬يكون بتقدير مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كخَاتَم فِضَّةٍ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬خَاتَمِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فَضَّةٍ‏‮  ‬‬وزاد بعضهم تقدير في‏‮ ‬‬كَمَكْرِ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيْلِ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬مَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيلِ‏‮ ‬‬والّه أعلم

(*note in English)

The rules of  الإِضَافَة (the iḍaafah construct) imply the meaning of اللاَّمُ = لِـ (the laam of possession) – like when you say: غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd).  This construction implies غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِزَيْدٍ (a servant belong to Zayd). What is also being implied within the rules for the i∂aafah construct الإِضَافَةُ is مِنْ – like when you say: خَاتَمُ‏‮ ‬‬فِضَّـــــةٍ ( a ring of silver) – that is to say: خَاتَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِضَّةٍ (a ring made of or from silver) and some of the grammarians also add that the iḍaafah construct implies فِي  – like when you say: كَمَكْرِ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيْلِ (like the deception of the night) – that is to say: مَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيلِ (a deception in / during the night).  And Allah is the Best of Knowers.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول مَعَهُ

25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬لِبَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬فُعِلَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـجَيْشَ‏‮ ‬‬وَاسْتَوَى الـْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْخَشَبَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّا خَبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا فَقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُمَا فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَرْفُوعَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬فَقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقَدَّمَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَاكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ (It [al-mafʿuul maʿahu – the object which accompanies the subject in the execution of an action] is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُــوبُ‏‮ ‬‬(the noun in the case of naṣb) الِذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬(which is mentioned) لِبَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬(in order to clarify), مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬فُعِلَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬(with whom the action has been done) – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ (like when you say): جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالجَيْشَ (The Amir came with the army) وَاِِسْتَوَى‏‮ ‬‬الـْْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَشَبَةَ and (The water is level with the wood).  وَأَمَّا

(As for)  خَبْــــرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْواتِهَا (the predicate of kaana and its sisters) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْواتِهَا‏‮ ‬‬(and the noun of inna and its sisters), ‏‮ ‬‬فَقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُمَا (they were mentioned previously) فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَرْفُوعَاتِ (in the chapter about الْـمَرْفُوعَاتِ [the nouns in the case of rafʿ]) وَكَذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬ (and similarly التَّوَابعُ [the appositive nouns]) فَقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقَدَّمَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَاك (were introduced there).    ‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول معه هو الإسم الـمنصوب بعد واو بمعنى مع بيانًا لـمن شارك الفاعل الـمتقدّم في‏‮ ‬‬فعله نحو اِسْتَوَى الـْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـخَشَبَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فالخشبة إسم منصوب لأنه قد ذُُُكِر بعد واو الـمعيّة بيانًا لـما شارك الـماء في‏‮ ‬‬الاستِواءِ‏‮ ‬‬والتّقدير استواى الـماءُ‏‮ ‬‬مع الخشبة وهكذا قولك سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدًا وأَنَا سائِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدًا أي‏‮ ‬‬مع زيد ولا‏‮ ‬‬يصلح عطفه بالواو على ما قبله أمّا من جهة الـمعنى كقولك سَـيْرِي‏‮ ‬‬وَالطَّرِيقَ‏‮ ‬‬فالعطف ممتـنع هنا لا ستحالة السّير على الطّريق‏‮  ‬‬وأمّا من جهة اللفظ‏‮  ‬‬كمَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدًا فالعطف ممتنع هنا لأنه لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز العطف على الضّمير الـمرفوع الـمتصل‏‮ ‬‬غير موكّد بالـمنفصل وأمّا في‏‮ ‬‬قولك مَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَزَيْدًا فيصح العطف ويضعف النّصب‏‮   ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَفْعْولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (the object which accompanies the subject)  is the noun in the case of naṣb which follows وَاو (a waaw) that has a meaning that corresponds to the word مَعَ (with), which makes clear who accompanies the الْفَاعِلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُتَقَدِّم (the doer that came before [مَعَ]) in its action – like when you say: اِسْتَوَى الـْمَاءُ‏‮‬‬ وَالـْخَشَـبَةَ (The water is level with the wood).  And so وَالـْخَشَـبَةَ (the wood) is the noun in the case of naṣb because it has been mentioned after وَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَعِّيَــة (the waaw of accompaniment) which has been clearly designated for the noun that accompanies الـْمَاء (the water) in the act of ‘being level’.  What is being implied is that اِسْتَوَى الـْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَشَـبَةِ‮ ‬(the water is level with the wood).  And similar to this you say: سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدًا (I and Zayd traveled) and أَنَا سائِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدًا (I and Zayd travelled) – that is to say (I traveled with Zayd).

It is not permissible however, to use the conjunction وَ to conjoin الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ to what precedes it.  As for what is figurative, like when you say: سَيْـرِي‏‮ ‬‬وَالطَّرِيقَ (my journey and the road), the use of the conjunction وَ is not permitted here because it is impossible for the road to travel.  As for the literal expression like:مَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (desiring to say: [I walked with Zayd]),  the conjoining of it (زَيْدًا) with what comes before it is prohibited here (also), because the conjunction وَ  cannot be used with الضَّمِير الْـمَرْفُوع الْـمُتَّصـــِل (the attached pronoun in the case of rafʿ) without being supported by الـْمُنْفَصِل (a detached pronoun) like when you say: مَشَيْـتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I and Zayd walked).  The conjunction is correct in its usage while the naṣb case ending is weak.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ

24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَيَانًا لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَقَصَدْتُكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْتِغَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرُوفِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ (It [al-mafʿuul min-ajlih – the causative object]) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ (is the noun in the case of naṣb) الِـذي (which) يُـذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـيَانًـا (is mentioned to clarify) لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ (the reason for the occurrence of an action) – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr) وَقَـصَدْتُـكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْـتِغَـــاءَ‏‮ ‬‬معَْرُوفِـكَ and (I came to you seeking your kindness).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول من أجله هو ما وفعه الفعل كقولك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وهو الإسم الـمنصوب الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذكر بيانًا لسبب وقوع الفعل الصادر من الفاعل فإن إِجلالاً‏‮ ‬‬قد ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الْقِيَام وشوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الذَّوْب و لذلك سُمِّي‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول لأجله أي‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬فُعِل الفعل لأجله لأن القيام في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الأوّل إنّما صدر من زيد لأجل إجلال عَمْرٍو و الذَّوْب في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬صدر لسبب الشّوق‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ (The causative object) is the noun upon which the action falls – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬ (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr and ذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْك (I am pining away with longing for you); and it is the noun in the case of naṣb which is mentioned to clarify, the reason for the occurrence of an action which emanates/originates from the doer. And so إِجْـلاَلاً [respectfully] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الْـقِيَام [the standing].  While شوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ [longing] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الذَّوْب (the pining).  It is for this reason it is called الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْـلِه (the causative object) – that is to say that the noun which has the action done لأَِجْـلِه (because of it), because القيام [the standing] which has been mentioned in the first example emanated from Zayd due to إجْـلالُ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٍو (respect for Amr) and الذَّوْب [the pining] mentioned in the second example occurred as a result of الشَّوْق [the longing]).

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنَادَى

23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمُنَادَى خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَة وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُالـْمَقْصُودَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُشَبَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـمُضَافِ‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّاالـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬العَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَيُبْنَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الضَّمِّ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالثَّلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَاقِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصُوبَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address)خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬ (is of five kinds) الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ and (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬غَـيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةِ and (the designated indefinite‏‮ ‬‬noun for whom the call is not intended)‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضَافُ and (the constructed noun) الـْمُشَّبَه‏‮  ‬‬بِالْـمُضَافِ and (the noun which resembles الـمضاف [the construct noun]).  As for‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّاالـْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬العَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُـودَةُ‏‮ ‬‬ and (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended), فَيُبْنَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الضَّـــمِّ (it is constructed on the ḍammah) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِيـــنٍ (without tanwiin)  –  نَحْوُ (like when you say): يَا زَيْــــــدُ‏‮ ‬‬(Oh Zayd!) وَيَا رَجُلُ. and (Oh man!). وَالثَّلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَاقِيَةُ (And the remaining three) are in the case of naṣb لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ (only).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمنادي‏‮ ‬‬هو الـمطلوب إِقباله بِيَا النّداء أو بإحدى أخواتها وهو خمسة أنواع أوّلها الـمفرد العلم نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬والثّاني‏‮ ‬‬النّكرة الـمقصودة بالنّداء دون‏‮ ‬‬غيرها وإن كان‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بضمَّة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلُ‏‮  ‬‬تريد به رجلاً‏‮ ‬‬مْعيّـنـًا‏‮  ‬‬و إن كان‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بألاف أو بالواو نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُونَ

‏‬الثّالث النّكرة الغير الـمقصودة بالنّداء نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬لغير مُعيَّن والرّابع الـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬والخامس الـمشَّبه بالـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬وهذه الأنواع الخمسة‏‮  ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬ذكرت تنقسم إلى قسمين أحدهما‏‮ ‬‬يكون مـبْـنِيّـًا على الضّمّ‏‮ ‬‬بغير تنوين والآخر‏‮ ‬‬يكون منصوبًا فالذي‏‮ ‬‬يبنى على الضم هو الـمفرد العَلَم والنّكرة الـمقصودة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬و يَا رَجُلُ إذا قصدت به رجلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُعَـيَّـنًا والذي‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب هو النّكرة الغير الـمقصودة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلاً إذا أردت به فردًا من أفراد الرجال‏‮ ‬‬غير معيّن والـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا عَبْدَاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬والـمشبه بالـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮  ‬‬

وأمَّا الـمشبه بالـمضاف فهو ما اتّصل به شيء من تمام معناه نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا حَسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬و يَا سَامِيًا بِرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬فإنَّ‏‮ ‬‬حسنًا وسَامِيًا‏‮ ‬‬يَتَعلَّقُ‏‮ ‬‬معناهما بما بعدهما أي‏‮ ‬‬بفعله وبِرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬إذ لو لم‏‮ ‬‬يُذكر ما بعدهما لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن معناهما كلامًا بخلاف الـمضاف فإنه ليس كذلك لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬الغلام في‏‮ ‬‬قولك‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يتعلَّق معناه بما بعده‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

الـْمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address) is the noun which represents someone or something being summoned.  It is precede byحَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النِّدَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬‏‭:‬‬ (the particle of summoning‏‮ ‬‬= يَا) or أَخْوَاتِه (its sisters).  الْـمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address) is of five kinds: the first is الـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) – like when you say: يَا زَيْدُ (Oh Zayd!), the second  is النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَة (the indefinite noun intended) by the call  /  summoning  and  no  one  else.  If it is in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah,  it like when  you  say: يَا رَجُلُ (Oh Man!) – when you wish to call a particular man, and if it is in the case of rafʿ with alif or waaw, it is like when you say: يَا زَيْدَانِ ( Oh two Zayds!) and يَا زَيْدُونَ (Oh Zayds! – three or more), the third  is النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَةُ (the designated  indefinite  noun  unintended) – like when you say: يَا رَجُلاً  – when .you are not calling a particular person, the fourth is الـمضاف (the construct noun) like when you say:  يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ  (Oh! Abdullaahi), the fifth is that which resembles الـْمُضَاف (the construct noun) like when you say:  يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً (Oh! Mountain climber).

These five kinds of الْـمُنَادَى  are (further) divided into two types. One of them is مَـبْـنِيّـًا عَلَى الضَّمِّ‏‮ ‬‬بِغَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ  (constructed on a fixed ḍammah without tanwiin at its end) and the other is ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصُوبًا (in the case of naṣb [without tanwiin].  As for the one that is constructed on ḍammah it is الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬اْلعَلَمُ (the singular definite noun) and النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended) – like when you say: يَا زَيْدُ and يَا رَجُلُ  if you intend to summon a particular man.

As for الـمُنَادَى (noun in direct address) in the case naṣb, they are النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُـــودَةُ (the unspecified indefinite noun) – like when you say: يَا رَجُلاً  if you are summoning any man – no one in particular and  الـْمُضَــــــافُ (the constructed noun)- like when you say: يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ.

As for الْــمُشْبِه بالْـمُضَــافُ (what resembles the constructed noun), it is like when you say: يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً (Oh Climber of a mountain), and  like when you say: يَا حَسَنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ (Oh he whose actions are good) and  يَا سَامِيًا بِرُّهُ (Oh he whose righteousness is high).

And so حَسَنًا and سَامِيًا, their meanings are connected to the nouns that follow them, which are فِعْـلُهُ and بِرُّهُ.  If these words are not mention, then the meaning of what is being stated is not speech. .Unlike الْـمُضَاف, it is not like that, because the word  غُلاَم ( for instance) in the phrase غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ is not linked in meaning to the word coming after it.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ

22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

‏‮ ‬‬ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬إِعْلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬بِغَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮  ‬‬جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

إِعْلَمْ (Know), that لاَ (laa) تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكَرَاتُ (causes the indefinite nouns to be in the case of naṣb) بِغَيْرِ (without) التَّنْوِيــــنِ (adding the nuun sound to the end of the noun),  إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ (when it [لا – laa] comes in contact with) النّكرة (the indefinite noun) وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and is not repeated) – نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا (If it [لَا – laa]) does not come in contact with it [النّكرة – the indefinite noun]), وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ (the case of rafʿ is required) وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and لاَ must  be  repeated)  نَحْـــــوُ  (like when you  say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ (No man nor woman are in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬ فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَـــرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لا(If لاَ is repeated),  جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا (the use and non-use of [the case of naṣb] is permitted.  فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (So if you wish), قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ (No man nor woman are in the house);  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (and if you wish),  قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة هي‏‮ ‬‬الحرف التي‏‮ ‬‬يُرادَُ‏‮ ‬‬بها نفي‏‮ ‬‬الجنس على سبيل التـنصيص أي‏‮ ‬‬أنها تنفي‏‮ ‬‬الجسم الدّاخلة عليه نفيًا عامًا حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يُستـثـنى واحد من أفـراده كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬لا فيه نافية لجسم الرّجال حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول بل رجلان وهي‏‮ ‬‬تعمل عمل إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬فتنصب الـمبتدأ إسمًا لها وترفع الخبر خبرًا لها ولا فرق في‏‮ ‬‬هذا العمل بين الـمفردة وهي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬لم تتكرّر نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَـرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬بين الـمُكرَّرة نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬غير أنّها متي‏‮ ‬‬تتكرّرت مع مباشرتها النكرة جاز الغاؤها نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬بالرفع في‏‮ ‬‬الحول والقوّة‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة (The laa of negation) is the particle by which the negation of a specific category of noun is desired according to the way it is quoted – that is to say لاَ (laa) negates the category of noun by preceding it with a total negation of (it) to the point of not allowing anything from it (the category) to be excluded (in the negation) – like when you say:لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is not (one) man in the house).  And so لاَ (laa) negates the category of men in it (the house) until it is impossible for you to (even) say: بلْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاَنِ (except two men).  It operates in the same manner as إِنَّ.  It (laa) causes الْــمُبْتَدَأ (the  subject) which is  referred to as إِسْمًا لَهَا (its noun) to be in the case of naṣb and it causes the predicate which is refer to as خَبْرًا لَهَا (its predicate) to be in the case of rafʿ.  There is no differentiation made in this function between the لا that is expressed  only once – which is the لا that is not repeated,  like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِــــرٌ (there is no traveling servant here) –  and the لا which is repeated,  like when you say :لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man nor woman in the house).  However, if it (لا – [laa)] is repeated, while having the indefinite noun coming in direct contact with it, then the cancellation of the naṣb case is allowed – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ (there is no power nor might except with Allah) with حَوْلٌ and قُوَّةٌ being in the case of rafʿ.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

يشترط في‏‮ ‬‬عمل لا أمران أحدهما أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون إسمها وخبرها نكرتين والثاني‏‮ ‬‬أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يكون الإسم مقدّمًا والخبر مؤخرًا وذلك كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فلو دخلت على معرفة أو على خبر مقدّم وجب إما إِهْمَالِها أو تكرارها فمثال دخولها على الـمعرفة قولك‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو بِتكرارها ومثال تقدّم خبرها قولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ‏‮ ‬‬بإِهْمَالِها‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

Two conditions have been made prerequisite for the function of لاَ (laa).  The first of them is that إِسْمُهَا (its noun) and خَبْرُهَا (its predicate) must both be indefinite.  The second condition is that the noun comes first and the predicate comes last – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ (no owner of knowledge is hated) and ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber present).  If لاَ (laa) comes in front of a definite noun or a predicate that comes before its noun, either its omission or its repetition is required.  The  example of لاَ (laa) coming in front of the definite noun is like when you   say: ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (there is know Zayd nor ʿAmr in the house) with لاَ (laa) being repeated.  The example of the predicate of لاَ coming first is like when you  say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ (there is no man nor woman in the house) with لاَ‏‮ ‬‬(laa) being omitted.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

أعلم‏‮ ‬‬أوّلاَ‏‮ ‬‬إن لا إنْ‏‮ ‬‬لم تباشر النكرة أي‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬فصل بينهما فاصل فحينئذ لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز نصب النكرة بها‏‮ ‬‬يجب رفعها ويجب مع ذلك تَكْرار لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولا امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيا إن لاَ‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬مع مباشرتها النكرة جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إعمالها والغاؤها أي‏‮ ‬‬جاز أن تنصب بها النكرة الواقعة بعدها أو تُبْقِيهَا مرفوعة وتُبْطِل عمل لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ‏‮ ‬‬بفتح الإسمين أو رفعهما

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

Know, firstly, that if لاَ (laa) doesn’t come in direct contact with the indefinite noun  –  that is to say, if something is standing between them, then it is not permissible for the indefinite noun to be in the case of naṣb.  The case of rafʿ is required for it and in addition to that, لاَ must be repeated. – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ.

Secondly, if لاَ (laa) is repeated due to contact with the النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun), its application and its omission is permitted. – that is to say, النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun) which comes after لاَ (laa) can be in the case or naṣb or it can remain in the case of rafʿ and the function of لاَ (laa) will be cancelled – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــــلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ with fat-ḥah placed on both nouns or the case of rafʿ (that is to say, ḍammah is place on the end of the each noun).

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فاسم لا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬إلّا‏‮ ‬‬يخلو من ثلاثة أحوال الأوّل أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مضافًا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مشابهًا للمضاف والـمراد به كل إسم تعلّق بما بعده إما بعمل نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارًّا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وإمّا بعطف نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا وحكم الـمضاف والـمشبّه به النّصب لفظًا كما مُثـّل والحال الثّالث أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مفردًا والـمراد به هنا ما ليس بمضاف ولا مشبَّه بالـمضاف فيدخل فيه الـمثنى والـمجمع وحكم البناء على ما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُنصب به نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمفرد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمثنى ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ في‏‮ ‬‬حال الجمع

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

The noun of لاَ (laa) does not function outside of three cases.  The first case is: that it is مُضَافٌ (annexed to another noun) like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no servant of [any] man present).

The second case is that it is  مُشَابَهًا لِلْمُضَافِ  (what  resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  What is desired is that every noun which is connected to what comes after it is connected either by function – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طََالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber here) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حُسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ (there is no good which he has done in existence) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارّ‏‮ ‬‬ًا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ (there is no one who passed by Zayd coming) or connected to what comes after it by a conjunction – like when you say:  لاُ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُـثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا (there is not one third nor two thirds with us – that is to say, we do not have one third or two thirds).  The rule for الـمُضَافُ and مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف) is that the case of naṣb is expressed as shown in previous examples.

The third case is that the noun following لاَ (laa) is مُفْـرَدًا (singular) and what is desired here is not مُضَاف or مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  And when الـْمُثَـنَّى (the dual) or الـمْجَمْــعُ (the plural) are joined to it (لاَ [laa]), the rule for its construction is in accordance with that for a noun in the a case of naṣb – like when you: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ  (there is no man in the house) in the case of the singular noun; and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ (there are not two moons in the sky) in the case of the dual noun and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ (there are no believers in the city) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ (there are no female Muslims in the  country) in the case of the plural noun.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ  

21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istathnaa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

 ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا فَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬تَامّـًا مُوجَبًا نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮   ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكََلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْفِيًا تَامّا جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الاِسْتِثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَاقِصًا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى حَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮  ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِغَيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَجْرُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِخِلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا‏‮ ‬‬يَجُوزُ‏‮ ‬‬نَصْبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوُْمُ‏‮  ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَدَا عَمْرًا وَعَمْرٍو وَحَاشَا بَكْرًا وَبَكْرٍ‏‮)‬‬‏‮ ‬‬

English Translation:

وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬(And so, the particles of exclusion)   ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ (are eight) وَهِيَ (and they are): إِلاَّ (except) , وَغَيْرٌ and (other than / except) وَسِوًى and (other than / except) وَسُـوًى and (other than / except) and وَسَـوَاءٌ and (except) ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَـلاَ and (except) وَعَدَا and (except) وَحاَشَا and (except).  فـَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ (The noun that has been exclude by illa) يُـنْصَبُ is in the case of naṣb), ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ (if the statement [preceding illa]) تَـامّـًـا (is complete) مُـوجَـبً ([and] affirmative), نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬ إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدًا (The  people stood [all] except Zayd), and وَخَـرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا and (The people left [all] except ʿAmr).  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكََلاَمُ (However, if the statement) تَامّـًا (is complete), but مَنْفِيًا (negative), جَـازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـيهِ ( permitted in it is)  الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬(and [that noun] is in the case of naṣb)  عَـلَى الاِسْـتِثْنَاءِ (in accordance with the rule for the exclusion of nouns), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَو اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None of the people stood except Zayd). وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬ (When the statement) [preceding illa]) نَـاقِصًا (is negative [and does not have الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ mentioned in it,‏‮ ‬the case of the noun which comes after illa]‬, كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَى حَسَـبِ (is determined by) الْـعَوَامِـلِ (the governors) [which precede illa]), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None came except Zayd)‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and (I didn’t beat anyone except Zayd) ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍand (I didn’t pass by anyone except Zayd). 

‏‮ ‬‬ وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى(And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) غَيْر وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ (ghayrun, siwan, suwan and sawaa’un) مَجْـرُورٌ (is in the case of jarr) لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَـيْرُ (only).  وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى (And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا (khalaa, ʿadaa and ˙ashaaنَصْبُهُ (placing it in the cased of naṣb) وَجَرُّهُ (and in the case of jarr) يَـجُوزُ  ([are both] permitted)  –  نَحْو (like when you say):  قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The people left except Zayd) وَعَــــدَا عَمْـــــرًا وَعَــــدَا عَمْــــرٍ and (except ʿAmr) حََاشَا بََكْرًا وَحََاشَا بَكْرٍ and (except Bakr).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـْمُسْتَثْنَى هو الخارج من حكم الـْمُسْتَثْنَى منه بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وإحدى اخواتها مثل له جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فزيد هو الـمستـثـنى وهو خارج بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من حكم الـْمُجِيءِ‏‮ ‬‬الدّاخل فيه الـمستـثـنى منه وهو القوم وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

الـْمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is the noun which has  fallen outside of the rule of what has been decreed for الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the noun from which it has been excluded), because إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِـهَا (illaa and one of its sisters ) precedes it.  The example of this rule is: جـَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (the people came (all) except Zayd).  And so, Zayd is الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun), and it is outside of what has been decreed for the noun which precedes إِلاَّ, which is called الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which it has been excluded); and in the previous example, that noun is الْقَوْمُ, and it like that with similar example.

 Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا وسُوًى بالقصر وجواز ضمّ‏‮ ‬‬السّين وكسرها وقد جاء سواءٌ‏‮ ‬‬بالـمدّ‏‮ ‬‬وجواز فتح السّين وكسرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬كسوى معنىً‏‮ ‬‬وحكمًا‏‮  ‬‬فإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬هي‏‮ ‬‬حرف وغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وسِوًى هما إسمان وأمّا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا فإن جررن ما بعدها فحروف وإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فأفعال‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْتَثْنَاءِ (the particles of exclusion) are eight.  They are: إِلاّ (except) , غَيْرٌ (other than / except) ,‏‮ ‬‬سِـوًى (other than / except) , سُـوًى  (other than / except), سَـواءٌ (except), ‏‮ ‬‬خَـلاَ (except), عَـدَا (except) , حاَشَـا (except) and سُـوًى with alif maqsuurah and the allowance for it to bear ḍammah or kasrah on the letter س (siin).  سَـوَاءٌ comes with الـْمَدُّ (madd = آ) and the allowance for it to bear fat-ḥah or kasrah on the letter siin (س) as well as kasrah; and it is similar to سِـوًى in meaning and rules.  اِلاَّ (illaa) is a particle while غَـيْرٌ (ghayr) and سِـوًى‏‮ ‬‬(siwan [سُوًى (suwan]) are nouns.  As for خَلاَ (khlaa) and عَدَا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa), they cause whatever is coming after them to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) when they are particles but not when they are verbs.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والـمستـثـنى له ثلاث حالاتٍ‏‮ ‬‬أوّلها وجوب النصب ثانيها جواز الرفع والنصب ثالثها إعرابه حسب العوامل الـمتـقدّمة على إِلا‏‮ ‬‬َّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجب نصبه متى كان الكلام الـمتقدّم على إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬تامّا موجَـبًا ونعني‏‮ ‬‬بالتّامّ‏‮ ‬‬ما‏‮ ‬‬يُذكَر به الـمستـثـنى منه وبالـموجَب ما‏‮ ‬‬يكن مسبوقًا بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه وشبه النفي‏‮ ‬‬هو الاستفهام والنهي‏‮ ‬‬مثال ذلك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬القَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فقام القوم كلام تام لأن الـمستـثـنى منه وهو‏‮ ‬‬القوم الـمذكور به ومُوجَب لأنه‏‮ ‬‬غير مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬ولا شبهه‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) has three (possible) cases: the first of these cases is the necessity for it to be in the case of naṣb, the second of them is the permissibility for it to be in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, the third (possible case) is that the inflection of the noun is determined by the governor which precedes إِلاّ.  

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is required to be in the case of naṣb when the statement preceding إِلاّ is complete and affirmative.  What is meant by the word التّامّ (complete) is that  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى the excluded noun] has been excluded) is mentioned in it (the statement), while (what is meant by الـْـمُوجَـب (affirmative) is  that it [the statement coming before إِلاَّ] is not preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation)  or  what  is  similar  to  it  –  like when you say: ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا.‏‮ ‬‬ And so قَامَ الْقَوْمُ  is كَلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬تامٌّ (a complete statement), because  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the  noun  from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى has been excluded) – and that noun is الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬- has been mentioned in the statement, and مُـوجَبٌ (it is affirmative), because it has not been preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation) nor what resembles it.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأمّا جواز الرفع والنصب للإسم الـواقع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجوز ذلك متى كان الكلام تامّــًا أي‏‮ ‬‬مذكورًا به الـمستـثـنى منه إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬أنّه‏‮ ‬‬غير موجب أي‏‮ ‬‬مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه من الاِسْتِفْهَام والنَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬يرفع زيد على البدلية ويجوز رفعه على الاستثناء هذا إذا كان ما بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من جنس ما قبلها إن لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن كذلك فلا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬النّصب نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْم إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِمَارًا بالنصب على الاستثنَاء ولا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز البدل فيه‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the permissibility of the case rafʿ or naṣb for the noun that comes after إِلاّ, that is allowed when the statement has been completed – that is to say, that الـمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى) has been excluded) has been mentioned with the statement and that the statement is not affirmative – that is to say that it is preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْي (the particle of negation) or what resemble it from  الاِسْـتِفْهَام (the particles of interrogation) and النَّهْـي (the particles of prohibition) – like when you say: مَا قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (No one stood except Zayd), هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (Did anyone stand except Zayd?), and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقُومَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْـدًا (There is no one standing except Zayd) with Zayd being in the case of rafʿ in all three examples because it is الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun).  The case of rafʿ  is permitted for the noun زَيْـد  according to the rules of exclusion for this noun, if what comes after the إِلاّ is of the same species or classification as what comes before إِلاّ ; and  if  that is not the case, then nothing except the case of naṣb is allowed – like when you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِـمَارًا (None of the people stood except a donkey) with [حِـمَارًا] being in the case of naṣb in accordance with the rules for the exclusion of nouns; while الْبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) is not permitted for it at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فــأمّا الإسم الواقع بعد إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَب بحَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬العواملِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمتـقدِّمةِ‏‮ ‬‬عليه إن كان الكلام ناقصًا منفيًا أي‏‮ ‬‬تفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُسْتَثْـنَى منه وما قبل إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منفيّ‏‮ ‬‬فكان الإسم الواقع بعد إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬معربًا بإعراب ما‏‮ ‬‬يقتضيه ما قبل إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬قبل دخولها وذلك نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ و مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ومَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مرفوع بقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وزَيْدًا منصوب برَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ومجرور بالبآءِ‏‮ ‬‬متعلّق بمررت كما لو لم تُذكر إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وهذا هو الاستثناء الـمفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬وهو لا‏‮ ‬‬يقع في‏‮ ‬‬كلام موجَب إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬نادرًا فلا‏‮ ‬‬يقال ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاِّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the noun coming after إِلاّ which is inflected in accordance with العَوَاِملُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُتَقَدِّمَةُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى إِلاَّ (the governors which  precede إِلاّ), if the statement has a portion (part) that has been omitted  and is negative – that is to say, that الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is omitted from the statement and what comes before إلا has been negated, then the noun which comes after إِلاّ is inflected with the inflection that would have been required for a noun preceding إِلاّ – prior to إِلاّ being placed in front of the noun‏‮ ‬‬ – like when you say:  مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (no one stood up except Zayd) and مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْدًا (I didn’t see anyone except Zayd) and مَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِـزَيْدٍ (I did not pass by (anyone) except Zayd).  Zayd is in the case of rafʿ due to the influence of قَـامَ and in the case of naṣb, because of رَأَيْـتُ and (in the case of jarr) because it is being governed by the preposition بِ which is linked to the verb مَرَرْتُ.  It is as if إِلاَّ had not been expressed.  This is الاِسْتَثْـنَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَـــرَّغُ (the  excluded noun which has been omitted.  It does not occur in speech except on rare occasions while the statement: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat (all of them) except Zayd) is not said at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 إن الـمستـثـنى بغَيْر وسِوى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاء مجرور فحكم الإسم الواقع بعدها الجر لإضافتها إليه وتُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْر بما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬به الإسم الـمستـثـنى مع إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فتقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ينصب‏‮ ‬‬غير كما تقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا بنصب زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بالإتباع والنصب كما تقول مَا قَام أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬برفع‏‮ ‬‬غير وجوبًا كما تقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬برفع زيد وجوبًا وأمّا سوى فمذهب قوم أنّها تعامل بما تعامل به‏‮ ‬‬غير من الرفع والنّصب والجرّ‏‮ ‬‬ومذهب سيبويه والجمهور إنّها لا تخرج عن الظّرفيّة‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

And الْـمْسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) preceded by غَيْر,سِوًى, سُوًى and‏‮ ‬‬سَوَاء isمَجْرُور (in the case of jarr [khafḍ]) لاِضَافَتِهَا إِلَيْهِ (because of their construction the noun.  غَيْرٌ (Ghayrun) is inflected according to the rules of inflection for الإِسْمْ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) when it is precede by إِلاّ.  And so you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the people stood [all] except Zayd) with غير in the case of naṣb – likewise you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ in compliance (with the rule for the case of rafʿ) and the case of naṣb – and like what you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (none stood except Zayd) with غير being in the case of rafʿ as a requirement.

As for سِـوًى (siwan), it is the opinion of the grammarians that it is governed by that which governs غَيْرُ  (ghayrun) in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and jarr (khafḍ),  and the view of Siybawayhi and the people of grammatical knowledge in general is that it is not include with the adverbs.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فأمّا خلا وعدا وحاشا فإن الـمستـثـنى الـمتقدم بهذه الأدوات‏‮ ‬‬يجوز جرّه على أنها حروف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وحَاشَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بِجَر زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بعدها ويجوز نصبه على الـمفعوليّة وتكون خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا أيضًا أفعالاً‏‮ ‬‬ماضيــةً‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهَا ضمير عائد على البعض الـمفهوم من القوم وهو مستتر وجوبًا نحو‏‮ ‬‬ قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وحَاشَا زَيْدًا بنصب زيد على أنه مفعول به وفاعل خلا وعدا وحاشا مستتر وجوبًا والتّقدير خلا بعضهم زَيْدًا وعَدَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وحَاشَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وأمّا إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقدّمت ما على خلا وعدا وجب النّصب بهما نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا بالنّصب و أمّا حاشا فلا تتقدّم ما عليه فلا تقول ما حاشا

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for  خَـلاَ (khalaa), عَـدَا (ʿadaa) and حَـاشَـا (haa-shaa), when الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى is (preceded) by these particles it is permissible for it to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) due to the fact that they are prepositions – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـدٍ and عَـدَا زَيدٍ and حَاشَـا زَيْدٍ. And so  خلا (Khalaa), عدا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa)  are also أَفْـعَالاً‏‮ ‬‬مَـاضِـيَةً (past tense verbs).  Their فَـاعِـل (doer) is a pronoun traceable back to someone who is understood to be from among the people and it is concealed out of necessity – like when you say : قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وَحَاشَا زَيْدًا (The people stood without Zayd).  Zayd is the case of naṣb, because it is الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ (the object of the verb [خَـلاَ‮ ‬,عَدَا and حَـاشَـا respectively]).  The فَاعِـل of خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا and حَاشَـا as stated before, it is a pronoun concealed out of necessity.   Its  implication is that خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (some of them [the people] acted without Zayd) and عَدَا بَعْضَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (some of them excluded Zayd) and حَـاشَـا بَعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (some of them are not with Zayd).  As for مَا preceding خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا, it is necessary that the case of naṣb (be affixed to the noun which is govern by them) like when you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَــــومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb.  As for the حاشا, مَا does not come in front of it, therefore you cannot say: مَا حَاشَا.


Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

  بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزِ 

 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz 

   [The Noun Of Specification])

ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬التَّمْيِِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الذَّوَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬تَصَبَّبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَرَقًا وَتَفَقَّأَ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬شَحْمًا وَطَابَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسًا وَاشْتَرَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرِينَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا وَمَلَكْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تِسْعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬نَعْجَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرََمُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبًا وَأَجْمَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَجْهًا وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬نَكِِرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

التُّمْيِيــــــزُ  (The  noun  of  specification)  هُوَ  (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (a noun in the case of naṣb) الْـمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬(which clarifies) لـِـمَا انْـبَهَمَ (what is unclear) مِـنَ‏‮ ‬‬الذَّوَاتِ (about the nature [of a verb and the exact details of what resulted from its action]) – نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (like when we say): تَصَـبَّبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَرَقًا (Zayd was dripping with perspiration) وَتَفَقَّأَ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬شَحْمًا and (Bakr is bursting with fat) وَطَابَ مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْســًا and (Muhammad is good  by nature [good natured]) أَشْتَرَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرِينَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا and  (I bought twenty servants) مَلَكْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تِسْعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬نَعَجَةًً and (I own ninety‏‮ ‬‬ewes) زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبًا وَأَجْمَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَجْهًا and (Zayd is more noble than you as a father and has a more handsome face than you).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزُ (And so [a noun] is not the noun of specification) إِلاَّ (unless) نَـكِِرَةً (it is indefinite) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُون (nor is it [the noun of specification] إِلاَّ (unless) بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ ([occurs] at the end of the statement).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن التّمييز هو نكرة جامدة مفسرة لـما أُبْهِِِمَ‏‮ ‬‬من الذّوات متضمّنة معنى من دون لفظها كقولك زَرَعْنَا الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا فقَمْحًا نكرة‏‮  ‬‬جامدة مفسِّرة لذات الـمزروع في‏‮ ‬‬الأرض الذي‏‮ ‬‬كان مُبْهَمًا قبل ذكره وهو متضمّنُ‏‮ ‬‬معنى من دون لفظها لأن التّقدير من قمح وقس عليه للتّمييز شرطان إحدهما أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة و الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬إن‏‮ ‬‬يكون واقعًا بعد تمام الكلام

Explanation of Text in English:

التَّمْيِيزُ (the noun of  specification)  is  an indefinite noun in the case of naṣb which clarifies what is unclear about the nature of a something, while implying the meaning of  مِـنّ without expressing it. – like when you say: زَرَعْـنَا الاَرْضِ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحًا (we planted the ground with wheat.  And so, قَـمْحًا (wheat) is an indefinite noun in the case of naṣb that explains the nature of what was planted in the earth  –  which was unclear before it (قَـمْحًا) was mentioned.  التَّمْيِيــزُ (The noun of specification) contains the meaning of مِـنْ (some) without expressing it, because what is implied in the above example is مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬قمحٍ (some wheat – [that is to say,  زَرَعْـنَا الاَرْضِ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحٍ  – “we planted (مِـنْ [some] قَـمْحٍ [wheat] in the ground”]) and so forth.

التَّمْيِيزُ (the noun of specification) has two determinate conditions: the first of them is that it is indefinite, and the second is that it occurs at the end of the statement.

(*note in ʿArabic)

التّمييز يُقسَم إلى مَا‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إسم مفرد وإلى ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إجمال نسبةٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَمَا‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام اسم مفرد كالـْمِسَاحَات‏‮ ‬‬نحو هَذَا شِبْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْضًا والْـمِكْيَلاَت نحو عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬إِرْدَبٌّ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا والْعَدَد نحو لِي‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرُونَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا والْـمَوْزُونَات نحو عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬رَطْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْتًا وما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إجمال نسبةٍ‏‮ ‬‬نحو طَابَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسًا وزَرَعْناَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا‏‮  ‬‬وزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْثَرُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَضْلاً‏‮ ‬‬وقس على ذلك

(*note in English)

التَّمْيِيـــزُ (the noun of specification) is divided between that which clarifies what is uncertain about a singular noun, and that which clarifies what is unclear about  إِجْمَال نِسْبَةٍ (the entire relationship)The clarification of what is uncertain about a singular noun is like الـمِسَاحَات (the measurement for land area)  – like when you say:: شِـبْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْضًـا (a shibr [foot] of ground); and الـمِكْيَلاَت  (the dry measure for grains)  –  like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِرْدَبٌّ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا  (an irdabb of wheat); and العَدَد (the numerical amount of something) – like: لِـي‏‮ ‬‬عِشْـرُونَ‏‮ ‬‬غُـلاَمًـا (I have twenty servants); and  الْـمَوْزُونَـات (that which is weighed)  – like: عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬رَطْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْتـًا (I have a‏‮ ‬‬ral of oil).  The clarification of what is unclear about إِجْـمَال نِسْـبَةٍ (the entire relationship) is – like when you say: طَـابَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْسًا (Zayd was good in spirit [good spirited]) and زَرَعْـناَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحًا (We planted the ground with wheat [we planted some wheat in the ground) and زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْـثَرُ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَضْلاً (Zayd is greater than you in  kindness / generosity [Zayd is kinder / more generous than you]) and so forth.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالِ

19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal  [The Circumstantial Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا وَلَقِيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةً‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

الـْحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) هُوَ (is)الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الـْمُفَسِّرُ (which clarifies) لـِمَا انْبَهَم (what is unclear) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ (about the circumstances [of الْفَاعِـل (the doer) or الـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the receiver of the action) or الـْمَجْـرُور (the noun in the case of jarr]) – (like when you say):  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا (Zayd came riding) وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا and (I rode the mare with a saddle) وَلَقِيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْـدُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـــــبًا and (I met Abdullaahi riding) وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِــكَ‏‮ ‬‬ (and what is similar to these).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَــكُونُ الـْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun must not be anything) إِلاّ (other than) نَكِـرَةً‏‮ ‬‬ (an indefinite noun) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُــــــونُ (nor  does  it  occur) إِلاّ (other  than) بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تمَـامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكلاَمِ (after the completion of the statement) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِـبُهُ (and it is not accompanied [by another noun] إِلاّ (unless) مَعْرِفَةً (it is definite).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الحال نكرة مُشْتَقَّة واقعة بعد تمام الكلام تبين هيئَة الفاعل والـمفعول و كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا ورَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعُمْرٍو جَالِسًا فراكبًا ومُسْرَجًا وجالسًا نكرات لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول‏‮ ((‬‬ال‏‮)) ‬‬على كلّ‏‮ ‬‬منها ومشتقات لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬كُلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منها‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على معنى وصاحبه وواقعات بعد تمام الكلام لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصح الاستغناءُ‏‮ ‬‬عنها‏‮ ‬‬

وراكبًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الفاعل‏‮ ((‬‬زيد‏‮)) ‬‬ومسرحًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الـمفعول‏‮ ((‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮)) ‬‬وجالسًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة المجرور‏‮ ((‬‬عمرو‏‮)) ‬‬وكلها متضمّنة معنى‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬دود لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬حال ركوبه إلى آخره شروط الحال ثلاثة أوّلها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة ثانيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فضلة ثالثها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون صاحبه معرفة وهذه الشّروط تجدها في‏‮ ‬‬راكبًا من قولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا لأنّه نكرة واقع بعد تمام الكلام وصاحبه معرفة وهو زيد

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) is a separate indefinite noun which occurs after the completion of a statement and which clarifies the circumstance of الفَاعِل (the doer), الـْـمَفْعُول (the object of the verb) and الـْمَجْـرُور (the object of the preposition) – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبــًا (Zayd came riding) and رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجـــــًا (I rode the saddled horse) and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو جَالِسَا (I passed by ʿAmr while he was sitting). And so رَاكِـبًا , مُسْرَجًـا and جَـالِـسًا are indefinite because the prefixing of اَلْـ is not permissible for any of them. They are separate from the rest of the statement, because each of them gives meaning to what accompanies it and they occur after the completion of the statement, because it is (grammatically) permissible to leave or drop them from the statement.  And so رَاكِبًا clarifies the circumstances of زَيْدٌ (Zayd) – the doer – (that is to say, how he performed a particular act) and مُسْرَجًـا clarifies the situation or condition in which الْفَرَسَ the object of the verb was found (when it received the action of the verb) and جَـاِلسًا clarifies the situation ofعَـمْرٍو (‘Amr) – the object of the preposition (during the occurrence of the action being carried out by the doer).

The determinate conditions of الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) are three.  First it must be نَـكِرَةٌ (indefinite), second it must be فُـضْلَةً (more than what is needed to complete the statement – (that is to say, it would be [grammatically] permissible to leave or drop it from the statement), and third ‏‮ ‬‬صَـاحِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْرِفَـةٌ(a definite noun must accompany it).‏‮ ‬‬ These conditions can be found in the noun راكبًا like when you say:  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا, because it is نَـكِرَة (an indefinite noun) وَاقِـعُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمِ (which occurs after the completion of the statement) and صَاحِبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةٌ (a definite noun accompanies it) and that noun is Zayd.

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