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A More Extensive Discussion About بَابُ‏ ‬الاِعْرَاب (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection]) from The Ajurruumiyyah with Endnotes

 بَابُ‏ ‬الاِعْرَاب  (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection])

Arabic Text:

 ‏(‬الاِِعْرَابُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬تَغْيِيرُ‏ ‬اَواَخِرِ‏ ‬الْكَلِمِ‏ ‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏ ‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏ ‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬عَـلَيهَا لَفْظًا أَوْ‏ ‬تَقْدِيرًا‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

الاعراب is الـمبتدأ (the subject) in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ  is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

هُـوَ تَـغْيِيرُ is a phrase which consists of هو which is ضمير فصل (a pronoun of separation) and the noun تغيير which is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject noun) الاعراب in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that تغيير is in the case of rafʿ  is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end. تغيير is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

أَوَاخِـرِ is مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [تغيير]) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah  construction).  The sign that أَوَاخِـرِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been  clearly affixed to its end.  أَوَاخِـر  is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الْكَلِمِ‏ ‬is  مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [أَوَاخِرِ) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign that الْـكَلِمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been  clearly affixed to its end.

لاِخْـتِلافِ is a phrase which consists of لِـ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and اِخْـتِلاف which  مجرورٌ‏ ‬بالالجار (the noun in the case of jarr because of the preposition).   The sign which demonstrates that  اِخْـتِلافِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

لفظًا اَوُ‏ ‬تقديرًا  is a phrase which consists of the noun لفظًا which is حال (a conditional phrase) in the case of naṣb and اَوُ which is حرف جرّ (a conjunction) and‏ ‬تقديرًا which is also حال in the case of naṣb and معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [لفظًا]).  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of naṣb is also in the case of naṣb. The sign which demonstrates that the two nouns لفظًا‏ ‬and تقديرًا  are in the case of naṣb is a fat-ḥah which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

English Translation of the Text:

اَلاِعْـرَاب  is the changing  of the end (last letter) of words  because of the different  kinds  of  عَـوَامِـل (governors or governing factors)  الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬ًعَلَىهَا  (preceding or affecting them).  [This change] is لَفْظاً (by expression) orتَقْدِيرًا (by implication).

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

‏ ‬الاِِعْراَبُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬تَغْيِيرُ‏ ‬اَوَخِرِالْكَلِمِ‏ ‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏ ‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏ ‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬ًعَلَىهَا لَفْظاً‏ ‬أَوْ‏ ‬تَقْدِيرًا انّ‏ ‬هذا التّغيير اللاّحق‏  ‬في‏ ‬اواخرَ‏ ‬الكلم‏  ‬قد‏ ‬يكون لفظًا كقولك جاء زيدٌ‏ ‬و رأيت زيدًا و مررت بزيدٍ‏ ‬و قد‏ ‬يكون تقديرًا كقولك جاء الفتَى ورأيت الفتَىو مررت بالفتَى فانّ‏ ‬التّغيير الذي‏ ‬في‏ ‬آخر زيد ظاهر ملفوظ والتّغيير الذي‏ ‬في‏ ‬آخر الفتَى مقدّر منويّ‏ ‬لأنه مبني‏ ‬على الالف المقصورة ولهذا قلنا أنّ‏ ‬التّغيير‏ ‬يكون لفظًا او تقديرًا

Explanation in English:

اَلاِعْـرَاب 1is the changing of the end (last letter) of words2 because of the different (kind of) عَوَامِل (governors) preceding them or governing factors3 affecting.  (This change) is لَفْظاً (by expression) or تَـقْدِيرًا (by implication)4.  This affixed change which is at the end of words is ‏ ‬لَفْظًاlike when you say: جََاءَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd came) and رَأَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا (I saw Zayd) and‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزَيْدٍ (I passed by Zayd).  It is تَقْدِيرًا  when you say: جَاءَ‏ ‬الْفَتَى (the youth came) and رََأَيْتُ‏ ‬الْفَتَى (I saw the youth) and مَـرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِــالْـفتَى (I passed by the youth).  And so the change which occurred at the end of the word زَيْـد is ظَاهِـر (clear) and ملَفُوظ (expressed) and the change (which should have occurred) at the end of اَلْفَتَى is (implied) and مَـنْوِيٌّ (intended) because it (اَلْـفَتَى) is  مَـبْنِي‏ ‬على الالف المقصورة‏ = ‬ى (its construction is fixed on the alif maqṣuurah5 and unchangeable).  For this reason we have said, that the change is لَـفْظًا or تَقْدِيرًا.       ‬

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَ‏‬اَقْسَامُهُ‏ ‬اَرْبَعَةٌ‏: ‬رَفْعٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ نَصْبٌ‏ ‬وَ‏‬خَفْضٌ‏ ‬وَ‏‬جَزْمٌ‏ ‬فَلِلاَسْمَاءِ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلِكَ الرَّفْعُ‏ ‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏ ‬وَالْخَفْضُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬لاَ‏ ‬جََزْمَ‏ ‬فِيهَا وَ‏‬لِلاَفْعَالِ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلكَِ‏ ‬الرَّفْعُ‏ ‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬الْجَزْمُ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬خَفْضَ‏ ‬فِيهَا‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text

واَقْسَامُهُ is a phrase which consists of وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْتِئْنَاف (the resumptive waaw) and اقسام which is المبتدأ (the subject) in the case of rafʿ and ـه which is ضمير متصل (an attached pronoun).  The sign which demonstrates that اَقْـسَامُ  is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  اَقْـسَامُ is also مضاف (an ajoined noun) and ـه is  مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [اقسام]) and as a result, itis standing in the place of مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrated that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مَبْنِي (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah.

اَرْبَعَةٌ is خَبْرُ‏ ‬الْمُبْتَدَإِ (the predicate of the subject noun) اَقْسَامُ and is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

رَفْعٌ is بَدلُ‏ ‬بَعْضٍ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬كُلٍّ (a substitute of a part for the whole) for اربعة.  If اربعة is remove from the statement, رفع can stand in its place. رفع is the case of rafʿ, because the substitute for a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that رَفْعٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏نَصْبٌ is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَـطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) and the noun نصب which is مَعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun نَـصْبٌ is the case of rafʿ, because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of raf.‏ ‬The sign which demonstrates that نَـصْبٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬خَـفْضٌ is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَـطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) و and the noun خفض which is مَـعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun خَفْضٌ is the case of rafʿ,  because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of rafʿ.‏ ‬ The sign which demonstrates that خَفْضٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏جَـزْمٌ  is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) و and the noun  جزم which is مَـعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun جَـزْمٌ is the case of rafʿ, because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of raf.‏  ‬ The sign which demonstrates that جَزْمٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.    

فَلِلاَسْـمَاءِ is a phrase which consists of  فـَاءُ‏ ‬الْفَصِيحَة (the clarifying faa),  لِـ which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬الْجَرِّ (the preposition)  and الاسماء which is مَجْرُورٌ‏ ‬بالْجَارّ (a noun in the case of jarr because of the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that الاَسْـمَاءِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلِكَ is a  phrase which consists of  مِنْ which is حرف جرّ (the preposition) and ذا which is اسم الإشارة (the demonstrative pronoun) and  لِـ which has لام البعد (the laam denoting distance) and كاف الخطاب (the kaaf of the one being spoken to [the second person pronoun]).  ذَلِكَ is standing in the place of  مجرور بالجارّ (a noun which is in the case of jarr because of the preposition).  The sign that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because كَ which is  كاف الخطاب (the kaaf of the one being spoken to [the second person pronoun]) مبني(is fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah.

رَفْعٌ is مبتدأ مُؤَخَّرٌ (a subject noun that follows the predicate) and it is in the case of rafʿwhich is demonstrated by a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏ ‬نَصْبٌis a phrase which consists of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjugation) و and نَصْبٌ which is المطعوف إليه (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]) . The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ. The sign which demonstrates that نَصْبٌ is in the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬خَفْضٌ  is a phrase which consists of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjugation) and خفض which is  المطعوف إليه (the noun cojoined to it [رفع]). The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that خَفْضٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬لاَ‏ ‬جَزْمَ is  a  phrase  which  consists  of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) and لاَ‏ ‬which is لا نَافِيَةِ‏ ‬الْجِنْسِ(laa of absolute negation of the [kind] of thing being mentioned). لا causes its noun to be مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and therefore, there is no اعراب for it.   Its noun جزم is مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb.  This is because لا نَافِيَةِ‏ ‬الْـجِنْس does the work of  إِنَّ – causing its noun to carry fat-ḥah and its predicate to carry ḍammah.

فِيهَا is a phrase which consists of  فِـي which is  حَرْفُ‏ ‬جَـرّ (a preposition)  and ـهَا which is ضمير متصل (an attached pronoun) which is standing in the place of a noun in the case of jarr (or khafd).  The sign ـهَا is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construction) on alif.

فللافعال من ذلك الرفع والنصب والجزم ولا خفض فيها The explanation of for each part of this sentence is the same as the explanation for each part of the previous sentence.

English Translation of the Text:

وَ‏‬اَقْـسَمُهُ (and its parts) are four:  رَفْـعٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬نَـصْبٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬خَـفْضٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬جَـزْمٌ.   And so  لِلاسْـمَاءِ (the nouns)‏ ‬can have اَلرفْع،النَّصْب،اَلْخَفْض (the case endings of rafʿ6, naṣb7, and khafḍ8 [affixed to their last letter] but  no t‏ ‬اَلجَزْمْ (the case of jazm9).  لِلافْعَال [the verbs]can have اَلرَّفْع‏ ‬،‏ ‬اَلنَّصْب‏ ‬،‏ ‬الْجَزْم (the cases of rafʿnaṣb, and jazm) [affixed to their last letter], but not اَلْخَفْض (the case of khafḍ).

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

واقسامه اربعة رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬وخفضٌ‏ ‬و جزمٌ‏ ‬انّ‏ ‬قسما من اقسام الاعراب مشترك بين الاسماء و الافعال قسمًا منها مختصّ‏ ‬بكل منهما وامّا الحروف فلا‏ ‬يدخلها شيء من اقسام‏ ‬الاعراب لانّها مبنيّة فامّا القسم المشترك بينها هو رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬لانّهما‏ ‬يدخلان اَلأسْـمَاء والأَفْـعَال كقولك زيدٌ‏ ‬يضربُ‏ ‬ولن اضربَ‏ ‬زيدًا والقسم المختصّ‏ ‬هو الخفض والجزم فالخفض مختصّ‏ ‬بالاسم و الجزم مختصّ‏ ‬بالفعل كقولك لم اذهبْ‏ ‬بعبّاسٍ

Explanation in English:

And it (اعراب) has four parts رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬وخفضٌ‏ ‬وجزمٌ.  One part of (الاعراب) is common between الإسم and الفعل and another part of it is exclusive is to each of them10. As for الحروف (the particles), nothing from اقسام الاعراب (the parts of iʿraab) is affixed to them, because they are fixed at‏ ‬their end. The common parts between اَلأسْـمَاء (the nouns) and الأَفْـعَال (the verbs) are: اَلرَّفْعُ (the rafʿ case) and اَلنَّصْب (the naṣb case), because both cases occur  in  الإسْـم and اَلْْفِعْل – like when you  say: يَضْرِبُ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd beat…) in the case of الرَّفْع and لَنْ‏ ‬اَضْرِبَ‏ ‬زَيْدًا (I never beat Zayd) in the case of النَّصْب.  The  exclusive parts are اَلْخَفْض (the khafḍ case) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case). اَلْـخَفْض (the  khafḍ case) is exclusively affixed to اَلأسْماء (nouns) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case) is exclusively affixed to اَلافْـعَال (verbs) – like when you say: لَمْ‏ ‬اَذْهَـبْ‏ ‬بِعَبَّاسٍ (I did not  go with ʿAbbaas).

Endnotes: 

1  The literal meaning of اِعْرَاب is that which is clearly apparent to the sight; obvious ; something that is shown plainly ; something noticeable or clearly visible; something that is  expressed or pronounced;  [Arabic grammar meaning]: inflection (that is to say: changing the last part of a word).

2 This affixed change at the end of the word helps one to determine the role the word is playing in a phrase, clause or sentence.

3 Governing factor here means : a rule of grammar.

4 لفظًا او تقديرًا literally means explicitly (or by expression) or implicily ( or by implication) and what is mean in the text is  ‏ ‬مَلْفُوظًا او مُقَدَّرًا(expressed or implied).

5  Alif maqsuurah ى which resembles the letter yaa without dots is a letter which cannot be inflected when affixed to the end of words.  This is do to its nature in that it should only be vocalized with the a sound that is the equivalent of two fat-ḥahs ــَـ ــَـ , whike the affixing of ḍammah to it would be burdensome on the tongue.   Thus the end of الفتى must remain fixed in its condition regardless of its case of اعراب.

6 The rafʿcase is the case wherein a word has ḍammah ــُـ or a substitute for ḍammah affixed to its end.

7 The naṣb case is the case wherein a word has fatḥah ــَـ or a substitute for fatḥah affixed to its end.

8  The khafḍ case is the case wherein a word has kasrah ــِـ or a substitute for kasrah affixed to its  end.

9 The jasm case is the case wherein a word has sukuun ــْـ or a substitute for sukuun affixed to its end.

10 That is to say:  part of these اعراب (cases / case endings) are common among both اَلاَسْمَاء (the nouns) and اَلأَفْعَال (verbs) and a part of them is affixed to the end of اَلأسْمَاء exclusively and a another part is affixed to the end of اَلأفْعَال exclusively.  As for اَلْحُرُوف (the particles), nothing from عَلاَمَاتُ‏ ‬الإعْرَاب (the signs of i’raab) precede them or causes their last vowel to change.  That is because they are مَبْنِيَّةٌ ([fixed] – that is to say their last vowel is unchangeable).

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