A More Extensive Discussion About بَابُ‏ ‬الْكَلاَم (The Chapter About Speech) from The Ajurruumiyyah

بسم الله الرحمــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

قال الْـمُصَـنِّف

وهو أبو عبد الله محمد بن محمد بن داوود الصنهاجي‏ ‬الـْمُـلَـقَّب بابن آجُرُّوم الذي‏ ‬وُلِد في‏ ‬سنة اثنتين‏ ‬وسبعين وستمائة والمتوفي‏ ‬في‏ ‬سنة ثلاث وعشرين وسبعمائة من الهجرة النبوية رحمه الله قال‏:

 ‬بسم الله الرحمــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

The author – and he is Abū ʿAbdullāhi Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Dāwūd aṣ-Ṣanhaajī known as Ibn Aajurruum1 who was born in the year 672 and who died in the year 723 after the Prophetic hijrah may Allah have mercy on him said:

  ‬بسم الله الرحمـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

بِـسْمِ‏ ‬- is a phrase which consists of البَاء = بـِـ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and اسم which is مجرورًا بالجارّ ( a noun in the case of jarr because the preposition) بِـ.  The sign that اِسْـمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah that has been clearly affixed to its end.  اسم is also مُـضَافٌ (a conjoined noun).

اللَّهِ is مُـضَافٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (a noun conjoined to it [اسم]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case jarr of due to the iḍaafah [construction]).  The sign which demonstrates that اللَّهِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

الرَّحْـمَـــنِ is صِـفَةٌ (an adjective / attribute) for اللَّهِ and as a result, it is case of jarr.  An adjective / attribute for a noun in the case jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign that الرَّحْمَـــنِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

الرَّحِـيمِ is صِـفَةُ‏ ‬ثَانٍ (a second adjective/attribute) for اللَّهِ and as a result, it is in the case of jarr.  An adjective / attribute for a noun in the case jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign that الرَّحيِمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

بِـسْمِ(In the Name of)اللَّهِ(Allahالرَّحْـمَــن(the Compassionate)الرَّحِيمِ(the Merciful)

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

ابتدأ المصنف بالبسملة اقتداءًَ‏ ‬بالقرآن الكريم وعملاً‏ ‬بقول رسول اللّه صلّي‏ ‬اللّه عليه و سلّم‏ ((‬كل أمر ذي‏ ‬بال لا‏ ‬يبدأ فيه بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم فهو أقطع‏)) ‬اي‏ ‬حال‏ ‬يهتم به شرعًا لا‏ ‬يبدأ فيه بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم فهو ابتر أو اجذم أو اقطع

Explanation in English:

The author has started with  البسملة (the Basmalah)2 following the example of the Noble Qur’ān, and has acted according to the saying of the Messenger of Allah صلّى الله عليه وسلّم , “Every important matter which does not begin with بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم should be أَقْطَعٌ (interrupted)” – that is to say a matter which is considered important  from the start which  does  not  begin  with   بسم اللّه‏ ‬الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم should be أَبْتَرٌ (cut) or إِجْـذََمٌ (cut off) or أَقْطَعٌ (cut short / interrupted).

بَابُ‏ ‬الْكَلاَم   1– (The Chapter About  Speech) 

Arabic Text:

(اَلْكَلاَمُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬اللَّفْظُ‏ ‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏ ‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏ ‬بِالْوَضْعِ)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

The word اَلْـكَلاَمُ consists of the noun كَـلاَم and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific. اَلْـكَلاَم is also  الـمٌبْتَدَأ (the subject noun).  It is in the case of rafʿ because it is الـمبتدأ (the subject of the sentence and the noun which begins the sentence).  It is not governed by خافض أو ناصب أو جازم (any particle of khafḍ or naṣb or jazm).  The sign which demonstrates that اَلْـكَلاَمُ is in the case of rafʿ is an expressed ḍammah which has been  clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word هُوَ (huwa)3 ضمير فصل (a pronoun of separation) that is مبني على الفتح (fixed in its construction on the fat-ḥah).

The word اللَّفْظ  (al-lufḍh)4 consists of the noun لَـفْط and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  اللَّفْظُ is خبر الكلام (the predicate of the subject noun اَلْكَلاَم) in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that اللَّفْظ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word الـْـمُرَكَّبُ consists of the noun مُـرَكَّب  and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الـْمُرَكَّب is نَعْت (an adjective for اللَّفْظ).   The adjective of a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that الـْـمُرَكَّبُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been  clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word الـْمُفِيدُ consists of the noun مُفِيد  and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.   الـْـمُفِيد is نعت (an adjective) for اللَّفْطُ.  Therefore, the adjective of a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that الـْـمُفِيدُ is in the case of rafʿ is a clearly expressed ḍammah which has been affixed to its last letter.

The phrase بِـالْـوَضْـعِ consist of the noun  وَضْـع, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and the particle بـِ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition).  The  definite noun الْـوَضْـعِ is therefore, مجرور بالجرّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition  بـِ)   The sign which demonstrates  الْوَضْعِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been affixed to its last letter.

 ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮)

English Translation:

الْـكَلاَمُ‮ ‬(Speech) هُـوَ (is) اللَّفْظُ (expression [which is articulated]الـْـمُرَكَّبُ (composite)5 الـْـمُفِيدُ (informative) بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (in accordance with customary usage and [regulated] by conventional [Arabic] rules)6.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

اَلْكَلاَمُ‏  هُوَ‏  اللَّفْظُ‏  الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏  الْـمُفِيدُ‏  بِالْوَضْعِ‏  العربي‏  فلا بدَّ‏  الكلام العربي‏  أن‏  يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏  أن‏  يكون لفظًا وأن‏  يكون مركبًا وأن‏  يكون مفيدًا وأن‏  يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏  فأمّا معنى كونه لفظًا فأن‏ يُلْفَظَ‏  صوتيّــًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الأبجديّة كقولك مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وعَلِيٌّ‏  وذَهَبَ‏  فكلّ‏  كلمة من هذه الكلمات الثلاثة تكون صوتًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الهجائيّة العربيّة‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مركّبًا فأن‏  يكون الكلام العربي‏  مؤلّفًا من كلمتين أو أكثرَ‏  نحو عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏  وإِذَا جاَءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وطُلُوعُ‏  الشَّمْسِ‏  وكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات مركّبةٌ‏  غيرُ‏  مفيدةٍ‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مفيدًا فأن‏  يَكْفي‏  سكوتُ‏  الـمتكلم عليه بحيثُ‏  لا‏  يبقى السّامع منتظرًا لشيء آخر فإذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  هذه العبارة ليست مفيدةً‏  لأنّها لا تفيد الـمخاطب فائدةً‏  تامّةً‏  ولكن إذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  إِلَى بَيْتي‏  فَاَكْرِمْهُ‏  فهذه العبارة أفادت إفَادة  كَافيةً‏  والسامع بها لا‏  ينتنظر أكثر من هذه‏

وأمّا معنى كونه موضوعًا بالوضع العربي‏  هي‏  بثلاث حالات أولها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التي‏  وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى ذات شخص نحو مُحَمَّدٌ‏  أو   للدلالة على معنى ذات مكان نحو مَسْجِدٌ‏  أو للدلالة على معنى ذات شيء نحو كِـتَابٌ‏  فيسمّى كل لفظ من هذه الألفاظ إسمًا

‏  ثانيها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى‏   وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى حصول الحدث بأحد الأزمنة الثلاثة وهي‏  الفعل الماضي  أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث وقع قبل زمان التَّكلُّم نحو ذَهَبَ‏  والفعل المضارع أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يقع في‏  زمان التكلُّم أو بعده كقولك‏  يَذْهَبُ‏  وفعل الأمر أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يُطلَب حصوله بعد زمان التكلُّم نحو إذْهَبْ‏

ثالثها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى وضعها العرب  غير تامّ  الْـمعنى حتّى تُضَمَّ‏  إلى كلمة  غيرها وهي‏  كقولك هَلْ‏  ومِنْ‏  ولَمْ‏   فإذا قلت هَلْ‏  ذَهَبَ‏  ومِنَ‏  الـْمَسْجِدِ‏  ولَمْ‏  يَخْرُجْ‏  فكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات‏  الثّلاثة لم‏  يُفْهَم معناها تامـّــًا حتّى تضمّ‏  إلى كلمة‏  غيرها وتسمّى كل عبارة من هذه العبارات الثلاثة حرفًا فالإسم والفعل والحرف تكون من حالات الكلام الثلاثة التي‏  وضعها العرب بالوضع العربي

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional ʿArabic rules.  Undoubtedly, ʿArabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَفْظـًا (expressed),  مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that ʿArabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (ʿAlī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مَـرَكَّبًا , ʿArabic speech is composed of two or more words7 – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬(ʿAbdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحُـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَذْهَبُ (he is going), and the ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs – their purpose is not completely understood until they are placed next to another word.  They are like: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ and so if you say: هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ (did he go) and مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ (from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏‮ ‬‬ And so, الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have been regulated with conventional ʿArabic rules.

تَنْبِيه  – Note / Rule in Arabic 

وقلنا عند النحويين أنّ‏ ‬الكلام العربي‏ ‬أن‏ ‬يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏ ‬أن‏ ‬يكون لفظًا وأن‏ ‬يكون مركبًا وأن‏ ‬يكون مفيدًا وأن‏ ‬يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏ ‬فخرج الكلام عند اللغويين عن قولنا عند النحويين فهو عندهم كلّ‏ ‬قولٍ‏ ‬مفردٍ‏ ‬كَزيدٍ‏ ‬أو مركّبٍ‏  ‬كَقَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬أو ما حصل به الافهام سواء أكان لفطًا أم لم‏ ‬يكن كأشارة وكتابة فالأشارة مثلاً‏ ‬إذا قلت لك أَوَصَلتَ‏ ‬أَمْسًافأشرْتَ‏ ‬إليّ‏ ‬بحركة رأسك رفعًا وخفضًافأناأفهم أنّك تقول لي‏ ‬نَعَمْ‏  ‬وخرج الكلام عند الفقهاء فهو عندهم ما بطل الصلاة من حرفٍ‏ ‬مُفْهَمٍ‏ ‬كَقافٍ‏ ‬=‬‏ ((‬ق‏)) ‬أو عينٍ‏ ‬=‬‏ ((‬ع‏)) ‬أو حرفين‏ ‬

وإنْ‏ ‬لم‏ ‬يُفهَمَا كَمِنْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَنْ‏ ‬وخرج الكلام‏  ‬عندالـمتكلّميين أيّ‏ ‬علماء التوحيد فهو عندهم عبارة عن الـمعنى القائم بذات اللّه تعالى الخالى عن حرف والصوت و قال الله في‏ ‬كتابه الكريم‏: ‬هُوَ‏ ‬الذِي‏ ‬أَنْزَلَ‏ ‬عَلَيْكُمُ‏ ‬الْكِتَابَ‏ ‬مِنْهُ‏ ‬ءَايَات‏ ‬ٌ‏ ‬مُّحْكَمَاتٌ‏ ‬هُنَّ‏ ‬أُمُّ‏ ‬الْكِتَابِ‏ ‬وَأُخَرُ‏ ‬مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ‏ ‬فقال الله تعالى عن هذه الآيات‏: ‬وَمَا‏ ‬يَعْلَمُ‏ ‬تَاوِيلَهُو‏ ‬إِلاَّ‏ ‬اللّهُ‏ ‬فعند الـمتكلّميين‏  ‬تَاوِيل الآيات قائم باللّه كلامًا وإنْ‏ ‬ما أنرل اللّة علينا عنها ءاياتًا أو حرفًا أو صوتًا‏  ‬

تَنْبِيه  – Note / Rule in English

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on fourthings.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏ ‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning  الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayåts) that are clear and these are foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayåts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6 

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as  الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وأَقْسَامُهُ‏ ‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏ ‬إِسْمٌ‏ ‬وَفِعْلٌ‏ ‬وَحَرْفٌ‏ ‬جَاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنًى‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

The phrase وَاَقْـسَامُـهُ consist of و which is وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و – the waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) and اَقْـسَامُُ which is مبتدأ (a subject noun)8 in the case of rafʿ, and that is because it is the noun which begins the sentence. اَقْـسَامُ is also المضاف -[which literally means the noun which has had something constructed to it or placed next to it and ــهُ  is an attached pronoun which is standing in the place of a noun which is مضاف إليه9 – (which literally means: the thing which has been constructed to it or placed next to it).   That is to say, ــهُ is the part of speech which has been constructed and placed side by side with  اَقْسَامُُ and it is standing in the place of a noun which is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The pronoun ــهُ is مَـبْنِى  (fixed  in its construction) on ḍammah and therefore, the inflective change can not be seen at its end. The pronounــهُhas been constructed toأَقْـسَامُ to show a relationship between a possessed thing and its possessor. The possessor is ــهُ(its) which is standing in the place of the noun (‏ ‬الكلام) and the thing being possessed is  أَقْسَامُ (parts)10.

ثَـلاثَـةٌ is خبر اَقْـسَام (the predicate of the subject noun  اَقْسَامُ) and is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

اِسْـمٌ is بَـدَلُ‏ ‬بَـعْضٍ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬كُـلٍّ (a substitute word which is a portion of the whole amount) or بَـدَلُ‏ ‬مُـفَصِّلٍ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬مُجْـمَلٌ (a substitute word that has been mentioned in place the whole)11 that whole is noun  ثَـلاثَـةٌ (three) which is in the case of rafʿ.  The substitute for a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case rafʿ.   The sign that demonstrates that اِسْـمٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

وَفِـعْلٌ is a phrase which consist of حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) وَ and the noun فِـعْلٌ which is مطعوف عليه (conjoined or linked  to it  [اِسْمٌ] by وَ.  The noun that is linked to a noun in the case of rafʿ by the conjunction وَ is also in the case rafʿ.  The sign that demonstrates that  فِعْلٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

وَحَـرْفٌ is a phrase which consist of حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) وَ and the noun حَرْفٌ which is مطعوف عليه (conjoined or linked  to it  [اِسْمٌ] by وَ.  The noun that is linked to a noun in the case of rafʿ by the conjunction وَ is also in the case rafʿ.  The sign that demonstrates that حَرْفٌ in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

جَاءَ is فعل ماض (a past tense verb) and فاعله (its doer)  is fixed in its condition on the fat-ḥah  and therefore its end cannot be change. Its فاعله (its doer) is a permissibly concealed pronoun which implies that ‏ ‬هُوَ is the doer.  هُوَ refers back to the noun حَرْفٌ.

لـِـمَعَنىً is a phrase which consist of حرف الجر (the preposition)  لـِ and  مَـعْنَىً which is المجرور بحرف جرّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition). The sign which demonstrates that معنىً is in the case in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which has not been affixed to its end, because the last letter of معنى is ى (alif maqsuurah) and its pronunciation with kasrah would be burdensome to pronounce12.  The root of معنىً is مَـعَنِي with the letter يِ vowelized with kasrah. The letter that preceded the yaa was alif carried fat-ḥah. Two sukuuns would have come together, the sukuun of alif and the sukuun of tanwīn, and so the alif was dropped to avoid the meeting of these two sukuuns13.

English Translation of the Text:

وَأَقْـسَامُــــهُ (And its parts)ثَـلاَثَةٌ‏ ‬(are three):إِسْـمٌ(a noun) and فِـعْلٌ (a verb) and حَرْفٌ‏ ‬جَاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with a meaning14).

Explanation of Text in English:

And its parts are three: إِسْـمٌ (a noun) – like:زَيْـدٌ (Zayd) and رَجُـلٌ(man), and; فِـعْلٌ (a verb) – like: ضَـرَبَ (He beat) in the past tense, يَـضْرِبُ (He beats) in the present tense and إِضْرِبْ (Beat) in the command tense; and حَـرْفٌ‏ ‬جَـاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter coming with a meaning) -that is to say one letter by itself or two or three letters joined together that have a specific meaning like: هَـلْ (an interrogative particle that introduces a question) andفِـي(A preposition meaning ‘in’ or ‘into’ among other things) and لَـمْ (a particle of negation that is used to negate the occurrence of an action in the past).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬فَالِإسْمُ‏ ‬يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِالْخَفْضِ‏ ‬وَالتَّنْوِينِ‏ ‬وَدُخُولِ‏ ‬الأَلِفِ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمِ‏  ‬وَحُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْخَفْضِ‏ ‬وَهِيَ‏: ‬مِنْ‏ ‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏ ‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏ ‬وَرُبَّ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالْكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمُ‏ ‬وَحُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ‏ ‬وَهِيَ‏ ‬الْوَاوُ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالتَّاءُ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

فَـالإسْـمُ is a phrase which consist of the noun  إسم, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and the particle فَـ which is  فاء الفصيحة (the clarifying faa)15. The noun الاسم is مبتدأ (a subject noun) in the case of rafʿ by virtue of the fact that it begins the sentence.  The sign that demonstrates الإسْـمُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

يُـعْرَفُ is a فعل مضارع مبني للـمجهول (a present tense verb constructed on the pattern of الـْـمجْهُول [the passive voice])16 and it is in the case of rafʿ. The sign that demonstrates يُـعْرَفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  فاعل (The doer of the action) is  represented by a  permissibly concealed pronoun that implies هو is the doer. هو refers back to and is standing in the place of the noun الاسم. The  sentence which is formed from the passive voice verb يُـعْرَفُ and the permissibly concealed pronoun هو is standing in place of a predicate noun that is case of raf17.

بِـالْـخَفْضِ is a phrase which consists of the particle بـِ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition), the noun خَـفْض and the prefix الْ which causes خَـفْض to be definite and specific.  الخفض is also مجرور بالجارّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that الْـخَفْضِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  The preposition بـِ is also phrasally linked to the verb يعرف in its expression and so you say:  ‏‬يعرف بـ.   The preposition بـِ and its object الخفض along with the verb يعرف is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate for the subject noun الاسم).  This is because الاسم comes before18 يعرف.  The noun  الْـخَفْض is also  معطوف (a noun that has  another noun conjoined to it).

وَالتّنْوِينِ is a phrase which consist of the particle وَ which is حرف العطف (the conjoining particle), the noun تَـنْوِين and the prefix الْ which causes تَـنْوِين to be definite and specific.  التّنوين is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [الخفض] by the conjunction و.  The noun الخفض is in the case of jarr therefore التّنوين which is conjoined to it is also in the case of jarr.  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that التّنْوِينِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

ودُخُـولِ is a phrase which consists of و which حرف العطف (the particle of conjunction) and the noun  دخول  which is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it ([التّنوين]) by the conjunction و.  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that دُخُـولِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.   دخول is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الاَلِـفِ consist of the noun أَلِـف and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الاَلِف is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [دخول]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  الاَلِـف is also  معطوف ( a conjoined noun).

وَاللاَّمِ is a phrase which consist of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction), the noun لام and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and.  اللام is مطعوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [الالف]).  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that اللاَّمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to the end.   اللام is also مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [دخول]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وحُـرُوفِ is a phrase which consists of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and حروف which is معطوف عليه ( that which has been conjoined to it [دخول].   The word conjoined to another word in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that حُـرُوفِ is the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  حروف is also  مضاف (a constructed noun).

الخَـفْضِ consist of the noun خفض, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الخَفْضِ is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [ حروف]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction). The sign which demonstrates that الخَـفْضِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَهِـيَ is a phrase consists of و which is  وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive19 و  and هِـيَ which is ضمير منفصل (an independent pronoun) هي.  هي is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence), and مبني (fixed in its constructed on the vowel fat-ḥah) which is unchangeable.  هي is standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ, however, because هي is مبني (fixed in its construction on an unchangeable vowel), there is no sign at its end to show that it is in the case of raf….  Therefore, its case of rafʿ is implied.

مِـنْ‏ ‬وَ‏إِلَـى وَ‏عَـنْ‏ ‬وَ‏عَـلَى وَ‏فِـي‏ ‬وَ‏رُبَّ ‏‬وَ‬الْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬الْـكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّم is a phrase which consists of مِنْ‏ which  is معطوف ( a conjoined noun) and ‬إِلَـى‏ ‬, ‬عَـنْ‏ ‬, ‬عَـلَى‏ ‬, ‬فِـي‏ ‬, ‬رُبَّ which are مطعوفات عليه (linked to it [من]) by the particle of conjunction و.  The words  مِـنْ‏ ‬, إِلَـى‏ ‬, ‬عَـنْ‏ ‬, ‬عَـلَى‏ ‬, ‬فِـي‏ ‬, ‬رُبَّ are all standing in the place of a noun in the case of  rafʿ which is الخَـبْر (the predicate) for هي.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is an implied ḍammah which cannot be affixed to the end of any of them, because they are مبنية (fixed in their construction; the final vowel for each of them is not changeable under any circumstance).  They also cannot be change at their end لِـمُحَاكَـاتِـهَا لِـصُورَتِـهَا بالنَّص فقط (because they all have been expressed in their fixed condition only to illustrate a point of grammar in the text).  As for الباءُ , الكَافُ ,اللاَّم, they are also مطعوفات عليه (linked to it [من]) by the particle of conjunction و, and they in the case of rafʿ.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah, which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

وَحُـرُوفِ is a phrase which consist of و  which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and حروف is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [ حروف in the phrase حروف الخفض] which is mentioned above).    The  sign which  demonstrates that حُـرُوفِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.   حُـرُوف is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الَقسَمِ is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it [ حروف]) and as a result, it is  مجرور‏ ‬بالإضافة ( a noun in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَهِـيَ الوَاوُ is a phrase which consist of the particle و which is  وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و – the waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) and هي which is  ضمير‏ ‬منفصل (an independent pronoun).  هي is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence), and مبني (fixed in its constructed on the vowel fat-ḥah) which is unchangeable.  هي is standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ.  However, because هي is مبني (fixed in its construction on an unchangeable vowel), therefore, the vowel on its last letter can’t be changed.  The noun الوَاوُ which follows هي and the nouns conjoined to it are the predicate of هي and therefore, they are in the case of rafʿ.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah, which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

‏ ‬والْبَاءُis a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and الْبَاء which is مضاف علي الوَاوُ (a noun constructed to the noun الوَاوُ that has been mentioned above) and as a result, the noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.

‬والتَّاءُ  is a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and التَّاءُ which is مضاف علي الوَاوُ (a noun constructed to the noun الوَاوُ that has been mentioned above) and as a result, the noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.

English Translation of the Text:

فَالإِسْمُُ (And so the noun) يُعْرَف بِـ (is known by)‏ ‬الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering 20[of the vowel]) وَتَنْوِينِ ‏ ‬(and tanwiin21 [adding the nuun sound to the end of the word]);

وَدُخُـولِ‏ ‬الأَلِـفِ‏ ‬اللاَّمِِ‏ ‬(and the prefixing22 of the alif and the laam – اَلْْ [the]);

and وَحَرُوفُ‏ ‬الْخَفْضِ (and the particles of khafḍ [letters] of lowering23 and they are:

;مِنْ‏ ‬وَإلَى وَعَنْ‏ ‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏ ‬وَرُبَّ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالْكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمُ

وَحَرُوفُ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ (and the particles of swearing)24 and they are:  

.الْواوُ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالتَّاءُ

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

فالإسم‏ ‬يعرف بالخفض كقولك مررت بالرّجلِ‏ ‬والغلامِ‏ ‬ِوبالتّنوين كقولك زيدٌ‏ ‬ورجلٌ‏ ‬وبدخول الألف واللاّم كقولك الرّجلُ‏ ‬والغلامُ‏ ‬وبحروف الخفض وهي‏ ‬من وإلى وعن وعلى وفي‏ ‬وربّ‏ ‬والباء والكاف واللام وحروف القسم وهي‏ ‬الواو والباء والتّاء كقولك سرتُ‏ ‬من البصرةِ‏ ‬إلى الكوفةِ‏ ‬ورحلتُ‏ ‬عن البلدِ‏ ‬وصعدت على الخيلِ‏ ‬وجلست في‏ ‬البيتِ‏ ‬وربّ‏ ‬رجلٍ‏ ‬كريمٍ‏ ‬لقِيته وكتبت بالقلمِ‏ ‬وزيدٌ‏ ‬كالأسدِ‏ ‬والحمدُ‏ ‬للّهِ‏ ‬وواللّهِ‏ ‬وباللّهِ‏ ‬وتاللّهِِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الإِسْمُ (The noun) is known by:

الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering of the25 vowel, that is to say placing the vowel beneath the noun) as you would say: مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِالرَّجُلِ‏ ‬وَالْغُلاَمِ (I passed by the man and the boy);

and by التَّنْوِينِ‏ (tanwin) as you would say:زَيْدٌ (Zaydun) and رَجُـلٌ (rajulun) and مُومِنَاتٌ(muuminaatun);

and by دُخُولِ‏ ‬الأَلِفِ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمِ (the prefixing of alif and laam = اَلْ to the front of the word) – as you would say: اَلرَّجُـلُ‏ ‬وَالْـغُلاَمُ (the man and the servant boy) formed from the words:رَجُـلٌ and غُلاَمٌ;

and by the prefixing of حُـرُوفِ‏ ‬الْـخَفْضِ (the letters [particles] of khafḍ [lowering]) mainly prepositions – which cause the noun to carry  كَسْـرَة = ــِـ  / ــٍـ   as its final vowel) and they are: مِـنْ (from), إلَـى (to), عَـنْ (about, from), عَـلَى(on), فِي (in, into), رُبَّ (how many a…), اَلْـظبَاءُ = ب (by, in, with), اَلْـكَافُ‏ ‬= كَ (like, as), اللاّمُ =‏ ‬لِ (to, belonging to, for) as you would say: سِرْتُ‏ ‬مِنَ‏ ‬الْـبَصْرَةِ‏ ‬إِلَى‏ ‬الْكُوفَةِ‏ ‬(I traveled from Baṣrah to Kuufah), رَحَـلْتُ‏ ‬عَـنِ‏ ‬الْـبَلَدِ (I departed from the country),  صَـعَدتُ‏ ‬عَـلَى الـْـخَـيْـلِ  (I climbed upon the stallion),  جَـلَسْتُ‏ ‬فِـي‏ ‬الْـبَـيْتِ (I sat in the house), رُبَّ‏ ‬رَجُلٍ‏ ‬كَرِيمٍ‏ ‬لَقِيتُهُ (Many a noble man I have met)27, كَتَـبْتُ‏ ‬بِالْقَلَمِ  (I wrote with the pen), زَيْدٌ‏ ‬كَالأَسَدِ (Zayd  is like the lion), اَلْحَمْدُ‏ ‬لِلَّهِ (The praise belongs to Allah);

and by حُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ (the particles for swearing) and they are   اَلْوَاوُ  = و (by) and  اَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by) and  اَلْـتَاءُ = تَ (by) like when you say: وَاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) and بِـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) تَاللَّهِ(I swear by Allah).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَالْفِِِِعْلُ‏ ‬يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِقَدْ‏ ‬وَالسِّينِِِِِِِ‏ ‬وَسَوْفَ‏ ‬وَتَاءِِِِ‏ ‬التَّاْنِيثِِِ السَّاكِنَةِ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

وَ‏‬الْـفِعْلُ يُـعْرَفُ بقد is a phrase which consists of  و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) which is also وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و) and the noun الفِعْل which معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [فالاسْـمُ] which has been previously mentioned above. وَ‏‬الْـفِعْلُ يُـعْرَفُ بقد is conjoined to the sentence that began with فالاسم or is a resumption of the discussion about the parts of اَلْـكَلاَمُ.

الفعل is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence) in the case of rafʿ by the very fact that it is at the beginning of the sentence.The sign which demonstrates that الْـفِعْلُ is in the the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to the end of it.

 يُـعْرَفُ is a phrase which consists of فعل مضارع للمجهول  (a present tense verb in the case of  rafʿ constructed on the pattern of الْمـجْهُول  (the passive voice) and a concealed pronoun which is نائب الفاعل (the stand in for doer) and which implies هو يُعْرَفُ  is standing in the place of a predicate noun in the case of rafʿ which would be خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject noun) الفعل  – that noun is مَعْرُوفُ – and so you would say: فالفعل مَـعْرُوفٌ‏ ‬بِـ. The sign which demonstrates that  يُـعْرَفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

بقد is a phrase which consist of  بِـ which is ‏ ‬حرف جرّ (a preposition) and قد which is حرف تحقيق و تقليل (a particle of absolute certainty and infrequency) that is standing in the place of  مجرورٌ‏ ‬بالالجارّ (a noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition).  The preposition بـِ is also linked to the verb يعرف in expression and so you say: ‏ ‬يعرف بـِ.   The sign which demonstrates that قد is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني  (fixed in its  construction) on sukuun and لِـمُحَاكَـاتِـهَا لِـصُورَتِـهَا بالنَّص فقط  (because it has been quoted as it is in its fixed condition only to illustrate a point of grammar in the text); that point is that الفعل is يعرف known بـِ (by) the particle قد.  That is to say, if you are try to discover which word is the verb in a sentence which has قد in it, the verb is identifiable by قد which precedes it and is a sign of it.

والسِّينِ is a phrase which consists of و which is  حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction)  and السِّينِ which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]).  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in  the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that السِّينِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬سَـوْفَ is a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and سوف which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]) and which is standing in the place of  مجرور بالجارّ (a noun in the case jarr due to the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because  سَـوْفَ is مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and لمحاكاته لصورته بالنَّص (because of it having been quoted in its fixed construction, only to illustrate a point in the text); that point is that الفعل is يعرف بسوف (known by the particle سَـوْفَ).  That is to say, if you are try to discover which word is the verb in a sentence which has سَـوْفَ in it, the verb is identifiable by سوف which precedes it and is a sign of it.

وتَاءِ is a phrase consisting of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and تَاءِ which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]).  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.   The sign which demonstrates that تَـاءِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which is clearly affixed to its end.  تَاءِ is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

التّأْنِيثِ is ‏ ‬مضاف إليه (a noun that has been conjoined to it [تاء]) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that التّأْنِيثِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which is clearly affixed to its end.

السَّاكَِـنةِ is نعت (the adjective) for the noun تاء.  The adjective of a noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that السَّاكَِنةِ is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

وَاَلْـفِعْلُ (And the verb)يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـقَدْ (is known by قَـدْ (qad28وَالسِّين (and siin =سَ [sa]) وَسَـوْفَ (and sawfa)  وَتَاءُ‏ ‬التَّأْنِيثِ‏ ‬السَّاكِنَةِ (and the taa of femininity bearing sukuun).

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

والفعل‏ ‬يعرف بـقد كقولك قَدْ‏ ‬قَامَ‏ ‬وقَدْ‏ ‬يَقُومُ‏ ‬وبالـسّين وسَوْفَ‏ ‬كقولك سَيَقُومُ‏ ‬وسَوْفُ‏ ‬يَقُومُ‏ ‬وبـتاء التّأنِيثِ‏ ‬السّاكنة كقولك قَامَتْ‏ ‬وقَاَلتْ

Explanation of Text in English:

The verb is known by قَـدْ‏ ‬as you would say:قَـدْ‏ ‬قَامَ (He definitely stood up) and قَـدْ‏ ‬يَـقُومُ (He might stand) and by السَّينِ (the particle سَ) and the particle سَوْفَ as you would say: سَيَقُومُ (He will stand) and سَوْفَ‏ ‬يَقُومُ (He will stand) and by تاَءِ‏ ‬التَّأنِـيثِ‏ ‬السَّاكِنَةِ (the taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun29 = تْ  – like when you say:  قَامَتْ (she stood) and قَالَتْ (she spoke).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَالـْحَرْفُ‏ ‬مَا لاَ‏ ‬يَصْلُحُ‏ ‬مَعَهُ‏ ‬دَليِلُ‏ ‬الإِسْمِ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬دَلِيلُ‏ ‬الْفِعْلِ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

والْحَـرْفُ مَـا لاَ يَـصْلُحُ  is a phrase which consists of  و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) which is also وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و) and the noun الحرف which معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [فالاسْـمُ] which has been previously mentioned above. والْحَـرْفُ مَـا لاَ يَـصْلُحُ which is conjoined to the sentence that began with فالاسم or is a resumption of the discussion about the parts of اَلْـكَلاَمُ.

الْحَـرْفُ is also مبتدأ (a subject noun) in the case of rafʿ by the virtue of the fact that it is at the beginning of the sentence.  The sign which demonstrates that الحَـرْفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to the end of it.

ماis اسم موصول (an relative noun) which is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject  noun) الحرف  and standing in place of a noun that is the case of  rafʿ.  The sign that it is in the case of  rafʿ is a ḍammah which cannot be constructed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construcion) on sukuun.

لاis حرف نفي (a particle of negation).

يصلحُ is a present tense verb and فاعله (its doer) which is a permissibly concealed pronoun that implies هو is the doer.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which is clearly affixed to the end of it.

مَعَهُ  is a phrase which consists of مَعَ which is ظرف مكان(an adverb of place)  مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and ـهُ which is ضَـمِير مُـتَّصَل (an attached pronoun) مبني (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah .   مَـعَ is also مضاف (a constructed noun) and ـهُis مضاف إليهis a noun30 which has been constructed to it (مَـعَ) and as a result, it is standing in the place of   مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that ـهُ is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah.

دَلِـيلُis فاعل (the doer) of the verb يصلحand is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  دَلِيلُ is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الاِسْـمِ is مضاف إليه  (a noun which has been conjoined to it [دليل]) and therefore, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that الاِسْـمِ  is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

ولاis a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and لا which is حرف نفي (a particle of negation) .

دَلِـيلُ is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [the first دليل] mentioned above) and as a result it is in the case of rafʿ.  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that  دَلِـيلُ is in the case of rafʿ is a dammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  This second دليل is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

 الْفِعْلِ is مضاف إليه is (a noun conjoined to it [دليل]) and as a result,  it is مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign that demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

وَالْـحَـرْفُ (And the particle31 is) مَـا (that which), ‏ ‬لاَ‏ ‬يَـصْلُحُ‏ ‬مَـع (are not permissible with it) دَلِـيلُ‏ ‬الاِسْـمِ (the distinguishing signs of the noun)‏ ‬وَدَلِـيـلُ‏ ‬الْـفِعْــلِ (nor the distinguishing signs of the verb). (Note:That is to say, the particle is the part of speech which can not have the distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb affixed to its end.)

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

والحرف ما لا‏ ‬يصلح معه دليل الإسم ولا دليل الفعل لأنه لا‏ ‬يقبل علامات نحو ال ولا تنوين ولا‏ ‬يدخل حرف الخفـض عليه‏  ‬ولا قد أو السين أو سوف فلا تقول الـْمِِِنْ‏ ‬أو مِنًا أو إِلَي‏ ‬هَلْ‏ ‬لا تقول قََدْ‏ ‬فِِِِي‏ ‬أو سَعَلَى أو سََوْفَ‏ ‬عَنْ‏ ‬ ولو أنّ‏ ‬الحرف خالٍ‏ ‬من العلامات فإنه علامة لغيره‏ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَـرْفُ (the particle) is the (part of speech) for which none of the  distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb are permitted, because it is void of signs.  For  instance,  it  does  not  receive ال nor tanwiin (ــً‏ ‬,‏ ‬ــٍـ‏ ‬, ــٌـ‏ ‬) nor do the prepositions ( عَنْ‏ ‬،‏ ‬إِلَى‏ ‬،‏ ‬مِنْ etc.) come in front of it nor  do قد or سـَ or سوف come in front of it.  You can not say الـْـمِِِنْ or مِنًا or إِلَي‏ ‬هَلْ nor do you say قَدْ‏ ‬فِي  or سَعَلَى or سَوْفَ‏ ‬عَنْ.  Although الْحَرْف (the particle) is void of distinguishing signs, it is a distinguishing sign for other words. It shows the purpose of the word that follows it and its role in a sentence clause or phrase, like when you say: الإمامُ فِـي الْـمَسْجِـدِ (The imaam is in the masjid): فِي is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and الْـمَسْجِـدِ is مَجْرور (an object of the preposition).

Endnotes:

1 آجَرُّوم (Aajarruum) meansصُوفِي (suufii; pious man) in the Berber language.

2 The Basmalah is: بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم

3 ضميرالفصل (The pronoun of separation) helps to clarify the relationship between the word which precedes ضميرالفصلand the word that comes after it.‏  ‬It is called  ضمير(a pronoun) because it resembles the pronoun in its structure.  It is called ضمير‏ ‬فصل (a pronoun of separation) because it distinguishes between what is خبر (a predicate) and نعت (an adjective).  It is also used to emphasize the subject.  If the pronoun of separation is not placed between some words that are adjacent to each other, confusion may arise – especially if the text is un-vowelized – as to whether the second word is the adjective for the first word or is its predicate.  If you say for instance: عَـلاَّلٌ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِدُthe relationship  between  علاَّلٌ and الْمُجْتَهِـدُ  in their   construction can be understood to be a subject / predicate relationship  and so you can say  (ʿAllaal is the mujtahid) or it  can be understood to be a noun / adjective relationship  and so you can say (…Allaal the mujtahid).  However, if what is desired is a subject / predicate relationship exclusively, then  ضمير الفصل (The pronoun of seperation) must come between the two words – and so you say:  علاَّلٌ‏ ‬هُـوَ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِـدُ.  When the pronoun of separation هُـوَ is placed between them, the word that precedes هو which isعلاَّلٌ‏ ‬is understood to be المبتدأ(the subject) and the word that followsهو which isالْمُجْتَهِد is understood to be  الخبر (the predicate) of علاَّلٌ and therefore علاَّلٌ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِد (ʿAllaal is the mujtahid) . 

4 اللَّفْظ (Utterance or expression) is a term which means : throwing and hurling that is to say, the emission and expulsion (of sound).  It is said, لَفَظْتُ‏ ‬كَذَا كَذَا “I expressed or uttered such and such” which means I hurled (emitted) or threw (expelled) sounds (into the air) which consisted of some of the letters of the alphabet – like when you say: Zayd which consist of the letters ز and ي and د

5 That is to say, speech must be composed of two or more words.

6  The phrase بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (‘in accordance with customary usage’ [or conventional rules]) as mentioned in the above statement, means the expressions used by the Arabs out habit or custom for speaking, reading, and writing which they agreed upon and which eventually became regulated by conventional rules of grammar.The rules of customary usage evolved to become the rules of Arabic grammar.  (In accordance with the rules of customary usage) means [in accordance with] Arabic rules of grammar.  It means to make an expression the representation of the meaning of something like زَيْدٌ.   زَيْدٌ is an Arabic expression which the Arabs have constructed to represent the meaning of something or the name of it.  

7 A one word expression is not considered to be  كَـلاَم (speech) according to the Arab  grammarians, unless that word has another implied word adjoined to it.  For instance if you say: مَـنْ‏ ‬أَبُـوكَ  (Who is your father?) and the reply is مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad). Although one word ‘Muhammad’ is expressed four words: مُحَـمَّد أَبِـي (Muhammad is my father) are impliedor when you say: إذْهَـبْ (Go), one word is expressed but two words:  أَنْتَ إذْهَبْ (You go) are implied.  

8 The subject noun is normally in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah or a substitute forḍammah unless it is preceded by إنَُor a particle similar toإنَّ.  In that case, the subject must be in the case of naṣb. ‏ ‬

9 الْـمُضَافُand الْـمُضَافُ‏ ‬إِليْهِ are two parts of a construct known as the iḍaafah construction.  The iḍaafah construction demonstrates one of five relationship: 1. the relationship between a possesed thing and the possessor of it, like when you say: بَيْتُ‏ ‬الرَّجُلُ (the house of the man); 2. the relationship between (a noun and its adjective), like when you say: إِمْـرَأَةُ‏ ‬الْـجَـمِيلَةِ (the woman of beauty [that is to say: the beautiful woman]) or كَـرِيمُ‏ ‬النَّفْسِ (the generous of spirit [ that is to say: the generous spirit]); 3. the relationship between a masdar (verbal noun) and (the noun over which it has verbal force, like when you say: قَـتْلُ‏ ‬الْـعَدُوِّ (the killing of the enemy); 4. the relationship between the doer noun andthe receiver of its action, like when you say: فَـارِسُ‏ ‬الْخَـيْلِ (the rider of the stallion); and 5. the dharf makaan (the adverb of place) and the noun that accompanies it, like when you say: مَـعَ‏ ‬مُحَـمَّدٍ(with Muhammad) and قَـوْقَ‏ ‬الأرْضَِ(above the ground). 

10 وَاَقْـسَامُـهُ (its parts) is standing in the place of the statement  وَاَقْـسَامُ الكَلَامِ (the parts of speech).

11 The discussion is about three things i.e. the three parts of speech. When all three things are discussed, it will be said, “the whole or entire matter has been discussed, however since إسم is  only one of the three parts of speech that has been mentioned, and only part of the whole discussion, or one of three things that will be discussed,  the role or purpose of the noun إسم in the sentence is as بَدَلُ‏ ‬مُفَصِّلٍ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬مُجْمَلٌ (a substitute word that has been mentioned in place the whole).

12  ى (Alif maqsuurah) is a letter which is مبني (fixed in its construction) on the vowel fat-ḥah which means that it cannot be inflected to receive any vowel other than fat-ḥah, because such inflection would be burdensome on the tongue in its expression.

13 That is to say the word مَعَنىً prior to this change would have been spelled مَعَانً. As a result, this would have caused it to be expressed with sukuun on the alif and sukuun on the nuun. To avoid this the alif was dropped in the spelling, and so مَعَانً became مَعَنىً .

14 حَـرْفٌ‏ ‬جَـاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with a meaning) means:  الـحَـرْفُ يَـدُلُّ عَـلَى مَعْنَى فِي غَيْرِهِ (the particle is a word that shows the meaning [purpose] of another word) that follows it. الْـحُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـعَرَبِـيَّة (The Arabic letters) are divided into two kinds: حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَبَانِـي (the letters of foundation [without meaning]) and حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَعَانِي (the letters  coming with a meaning).  As for حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَبَانِي,  they are the letters of the Arabic alphabet which start with alif = ا and end with the letter yaa = ي.  As for حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَعَانِي,  they are of two kinds: عَـامِـلَةٌ (active) and عَاطِـلَةٌ (passive).  الْـعَامِـلَةُ is حَـرْفٌ (a particle) which causes  change at the end of a word they precede  –  like  حَـــرْفُ‏ ‬الْجرِّ (the particle which causes kasrah to appear at the end of a word) and حَـرْفُ‏ ‬النَّصْبِ (the particle which causes fat-ḥah to appear at the end of a word) and حَرْفُ‏ ‬الْـجَزْمِ (the particle which causes sukuun to appear at the end of a word).  

الْعَاطِلُ is  حَرْفٌ (a particle) which does not cause change at the end of a word – like حَرْفَا الاِسْتِفْهَامِ (the two interrogative particles) أَ and هَلْ which do not cause change to occur at the end of the word they precede.‏ ‬   

15‏ ‬الفاء ‏ ‬is called فاء الفصيحة (the faa which clarifies), because it ‘brings a matter to light’, ‘brings attention to a matter’, ‘it makes a matter plain or clearly apparent’ – in this case, the ‘matter’ being an implied sharṭ (conditional statement). الفاء ushers in a clause which is the conclusion to a conditional statement.  This conclusion statement is called جواب شرط مقدّر (the answer or conclusion to the conditional statement). For example in the case of the conclusional statement  ‬فَـالاِسْـمُ‏ ‬يُـعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـ, it is an answer to an implied conditional statement that has gone unexpressed.   The implied statement being:  إِذَا أَرَدْتَ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬تَـعْرِفَ‏ ‬مَـا‏ ‬يَـتَمَيَّزُ‏ ‬بِـهِ‏ ‬كَـلُّ‏ ‬مِـنَ‏ ‬الاِسمِ‏ ‬وَالْـفِعْلِ‏ ‬وَالْحَـرْفِ‏ (If you desire to know how each noun, verb and particle is distinguished one from the other). The conclusion to this conditional statement will be introduced by فاء الفصيحة and so you say:  ‬فَـالاِسْـمُ‏ ‬يُـعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـ (the noun is known by…) to the end of the statement.    

16 In the passive voice,  the doer of this verb goes unmentioned or is unknown, and what would have been the object of verb in the active voice becomes the subject of the verb in the passive voice, and so you say: “The nounis recognized by such and such signs or conditions”.  In an active voice, the doer of the verb is mentioned and what was the subject of the passive voice becomes the object of the active voice verb, like when you would say, “I recognize the noun when I see such and such signs or conditions.” 

17 That predicate is the noun مَعْروفٌ. like when you  الإسْمُ مَعْروفٌ بِـ (The noun is known by…).  مَعْروفٌ is the predicate of the subject noun الإسْمُ.

18 When a noun in the case of rafʿ precedes the verb,  it is called الْـمُبْتَدأ (the subject). When the noun follows the verb it is called الفاعل (the doer).

19 The waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) or which resumes the statement about a previously mentioned matter

20 الْـخَفْضُ (the lowering of the vowel) is the opposite of  الرَّفْـعُ (raising  of the vowel). It is the placing of the vowel kasrah beneath a letter and so it is said that the vowel has been ‘lowered’.

21 The meaning of the term التَّنْوِينُ tanwiin is  ‘adding of the nuun sound’, that is to say,  the vocalization of a noun with a clear sound of nuun bearing sukuun at the end of it.  

22 That is to say, ‘the placing of alif and laam (ال) at the beginning of a word’.

23 They are called particles of lowering because they cause the last letter of the noun which they are governing to carry the vowel kasrah.  The vowel kasrah is place beneath their last letter and so it is said that the vowel has been ‘lowered’.  They are:

     مِنْ which is used to indicate الإِبْتِدَاء (the beginning of a matter);

    إِلَى  which is used to indicate الإِنْتِهَاء (the end of a matter)

    عَنْ which is used to indicate الْـمُجَاوَزَة (passing beyond)

   عَلَى  which is used to indicate الاِسْتِعْلاَء (elevation)

    فِي  which is used to indicate الظَّرْفِيَة (containment or envelopment)

   رُبَّ  which is used to indicate التَّعْدَاد (enumeration)

  البَاءُ which is used to indicate الْـمَقْرَبَة (proximity or nearness)

الْكَافُ which is used to indicate التَّشْبِيه (comparison)

  اللاَّمُ which is used to indicate الـْمِلْك (possession)

24 The particles of swearing are:

الوَاوُ which precedes the clearly distict noun only – like when you say: وَاللَّهِ and 1-2وَالتِّينِ وَالزَّيْتُونِ ‬وَطُورِسِينِينَ – ﴿من التين

الْـبَاءُ which causes a word to be in the case of khafḍ whether its a clearly distict noun or a pronoun, only if that word is followed by another word or phrase like when you say in the case of a clearly distinct noun:  بِـاللَّهِ شَهِـيدًا – ﴿من النساء 166 and in the case of a pronoun: بِكَ‏ لأَضْرِبَنَّ ,

التَّاء which only precedes  the Name of Allah – like when you say:    57تَاللَّهِ‏ لأكِيدَنَّ‏ ‬أَصْنامَكُمْ – ﴿من الأنبياء      .

25 See footnote 20.

26 The meaning of the termالتنوينtanwiin is  ‘adding the nuun sound’, that is to say,  the vocalization of a noun with a clear sound of nuun bearing sukuun at the end of it,  like when you say: كِتَابٌ وَقَلَمٌ 

Tanwiin is of four kinds: 

1. تنوين التمكين (the tanwiin of possibility) – that is to say, the tanwiin which shows that a noun is fully declinable [having the ability to take all three vowels].  It is affixed to the end of the Arabic noun that is fully inflected and for this reason it is also called تنوين الصرف (the decinable tanwiin).  It is like when you say: رجلٌ‏ ‬‏. ‬رجلٍ‏ ‬‏. ‬رجلاً and excluded from that is the tanwiin for the sound feminine plural like: معلماتٍ and the defective noun like جوارٍ and مقاهٍ;  

2. تنوين المقابلة (the equivalent tanwiin) – which is affixed to the sound feminine plural..  It is equivalent to the nuun at the end of the sound masculine plural like when you say مُـعَلََّمَاتٍ which becomes equivalent to the nuun in the sound masculine plural like when you say مُعَلِّمِينَ

3. تنوين العِوَض  (the substitute tanwiin) which is of three kinds: 

a)  the substitute for a sentence like when tanwiin is affixed to إذ from the words حِـينَئِذٍ and يَوْمَئِذٍ. which are the equivalent of the phrases  حِينَ‏ ‬إِذٍ and يَوْمَ‏ ‬إِذِ respectively; 

b) the substitute for a word like when tanwiin is affixed to كُلّ when you say: كُلٌّ‏ ‬قَائِمٌ (everyone is standing) that is to say كُلُّ‏ ‬إِنْسَانٍ‏ ‬قَائِمٌ (Every man is standing) wherein إنسان is dropped from the speech and replaced by an equivalent tanwiin on كلّ;

c) the substitute for a letter which is affixed to the end noun – like in the words جوارٍ and غواشٍ – both of which are defective and partially declinable. They can only receive dammah or kasrah as a final vowel and so, الحذف (the dropping of the final letter) occurs. – like when you say: هؤلاء ضِوارٍ and مررت بضوارٍ.   The root of the word ضِوارٍ is ضواري  and so, the letter ي has been dropped from the end of it and has been replaced with kasrah  tanwiin  

4. تنوين التّنكير (the tanwiin which is affixed to end of indeclinable nouns  in order to distinguish between a definite and indefinte noun)  – for example: جَاءَ‏ ‬سِبَوَيْهِ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬سِبَوَيْهٍ.  In this, the first example of سبويه is a definite noun in the case of raf ʿ and the second example is an indefinite noun in the case of rafʿ.  The sign of it being in the case of rafʿ is kasrah which is standing in the place of dammah. The form which does not carry tanwiin  سَبَوَيْهِ  is definite. is preferable to السبويه.

27 That is to say, “I have met many men from among noble men” or simply, “I have met many noble men.”

28 Whenقَدْ  is used withالُفِعْلُ‏ ‬الْـمَاضِي(the past tense verb) it is حَرْفُ‏ ‬تَحْقِيقٍ (a particle of confirmation) which is used to emphasize the definite occurrence of an action like when you say: قَـدْ‏ ‬طَلَعَتِ‏ ‬الشَّمْسُ‏ ‬عَلَى الأُفْقِ (The sun has definitely appeared on the horizon).  Whenقَدْ is used with الْفِعْلُ‏ ‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) it is  حَرْفُ‏ ‬تَقْـلِيلٍ (a particle of rarity, infrequency or uncertainty) which is used to express doubt as to whether or not an action will take place like if you say:قَدْ‏ ‬يَجِيءُ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬قَدْ‏ ‬لاَ‏ ‬يَجِيءُ (He may come and he may not come).  However, قَـدْ may also be used with  الْـفِعْلٌ‏ ‬الْـمُضَارِعُasحَـرْفُ‏ ‬تَـحْقِيقٍ  in order to confirm the certainty of  a matter in a statement or conversation like when Allahسُبْحَانَ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬تَعَالَى says in His Noble Book:قَدْ‏ ‬يَعْلَمُ‏ ‬اللَْهُ‏ ‬مَا أَنْـتُمْ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ (Surely Allah knows your condition …) surah 24:64.

29 The taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun (تْ) occurs at the end of the past tense verb in order to show that the pronoun [she] or [it – feminine] is the doer of the verb.

30 In English grammar, is ـهُ (he) classified as a pronoun, but in Arabic grammar it is classified as a noun.   This is because, according to the traditional and classical Arabic grammarian including Ibn Ajurruum the author or this grammar text,  Arabic grammar has three parts of speech: ‏ ‬إِسْـمٌ (noun), فِـعْلٌ (verb) and حَـرْفٌ (particle); whereas according the English grammarians there are eight parts of speech: noun,  pronoun,  adjective,  adverb, verb, preposition, and conjunctions,  and interjection.  In classical Arabic these parts of speech do not disappear, but are classified differently.  In Arabic grammar, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs all fall under the Arabic grammar classification of إِسْـم (noun).  Thus, five of the parts of speech from English grammar are enveloped in the classification for one single Arabic part of speech.   As for the English verb, it is classified the same way in Arabic as it is in English – that is to say, in English, the action word is called the verb.  In Arabic the action word is called فِعْلٌٌٌُُ (action/verb).  The remaining three parts of speech from English grammar: prepositions, conjunctions and interjections fall under the Arabic grammar classification of حَرْفٌ. (In some cases interjectional statements are formed by using nouns as well.)  Althought these eight parts of speech are classified in these categories in Arabic grammar, each one is identified in its category with a specific name.  For example, the adjective is known as ‏ ‬نَـعْتٌ or صِـفَةٌ; the adverb is known as ظَرْفٌ; the preposition is known as  حَـرْفُ‏ ‬جَـرٍّ or جَـارٌّ; the pronoun is known as ضَـمِيرٌ or مُضْمَرٌ.   The relative pronoun is known as إِسْمُ‏ ‬المَوْصُوـلٍ.   The demonstrative pronoun is known as إِسْمُ‏ ‬الإِشَارَةٌ; the conjunction is known as حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَطْفٍ or عَاطِفٌ; The interjection is known as أَصْوَاتٌ or حَرْفُ‏ ‬نِدَاءٍ or حَرْفُ‏ ‬مُنَادَةٍ etc.  

31 الـْحُـرُوفُ(the particles) are divided between: 

(a) those which commonly govern both verbs and nouns, likeحَـرْفَا الاِسْـتِفْهَامِ (the two particles of interrogation) and حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles); 

(b) those  particles which govern nouns  exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـجَـرِّ (the prepositions) and الْـحُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمُشَبَّهَةُ‏ ‬بِـاْلفِعْلِ (the particles which resemble the verb [that is to sayإِنَّ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬أَخْوَاتِهَا -([إِنَّ and its sisters]); 

(c) those particles which govern verbs exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الشَّرْطِ (conditional particles), حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬النَّصْبِ‏ ‬لِـلْمُضَارِعِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of naṣb), and حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـجَـزْمِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of jazm).  All of these particles will be discussed in greater detail in the coming chapters.

 
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