Monthly Archives: March, 2011

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ

12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf  [The Conjoining Of Words])

ʿArabic Text:

( وَحُرُوُفُ‏  الْعَطْفِ‏  عَشَرَةٌ‏  وَهِيَ‏ الْوَاوُ‏  وَالْفَاءُ‏  وَثُمَّ‏  وَأََوْ‏  وَأََمْ‏  وَإِِمَّا وَبَلْ‏  وَلاَ‏ وَلَــكِنْ‏  وَحَتَّى فِي‏ بَعْضِ‏ الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏  فَإِنْ‏  عَطَفْتَ‏  بِهَا عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏  رَفَعْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏  نَصَبْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏  خَفَضْتَ‏  اَوْ‏  عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏  جَزَمْتَ‏  تَقُولُ‏  قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  وَعَمْرٌو وَرَأَيْتُ‏  زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا وَمَرَرْتُ‏  بِزيْدٍ‏  وَعَمْرٍو وَزَيْدٌ‏  لَمْ‏  يَقُمْ‏  وَلَمْ‏  يَقْعُدْ‏ )‏

English Translation:

وَحُرُوُفُ‏ ‬الْعَطْــفِ‏ ‬(And the conjoining particles are) عَشَرَةٌ (ten): وَهِيَ (They are): الْوَاوُ (and), وَالْفَاءُ (and so), وَثُمَّ (then), وَأَوْ (or), وَأَمْ (or), وَإِمَّا (or), وَبَلْ (but rather / on the contrary), وَلاَ (nor), وَلَـــكِنْ (but), وَحتَّى (until), فِي‏ ‬بَعْضِ‏ ‬الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏ ‬(in some places).  ‏ ‬فَإِنْ‏ ‬عَطَفْتَ‏ ‬بِهَا (And so, when you conjoin [words] with them), عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏ ‬رَفَعْتَ‏ ‬(you apply the rafʿ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of rafʿ) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏ ‬نَصَبْتَ (you apply the naṣb case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of naṣb) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏ ‬خَفَضْتَ (you apply the khafḍ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of khafḍ أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏ ‬جَزَمْتَ (you apply the jazm case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of jazm.

تَقُولُ (You say): قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَمْرٌو (Zayd and ʿAmr stood) وَرَاَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا وَ‏ ‬عَمْرًا  and (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) وَ‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزيْدٍ‏ ‬وَ‏عَمْرٍو and (I passed by Zayd and ʿAmr) زَيْدٌ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقُمْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقْعُدْ and (Zayd did not stand and he did not sit).

Explanation in ʿArabic:

االعطف اتباع الثاني‏‮ ‬‬للاول بواسطة حرف من حروف العطف ان حروف العطف عشرة و هي‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮  ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬بَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى في‏‮ ‬‬بعض المواضع فان عطِفت بها على مرفوع او على منصوب او على مخفوض رفعت المعطوف او نصبته او خفضته فتقول‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬العطف على المرفوع جَاَء زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو على المنصوب رَأيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا و على المخفوض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو و كذلك ان عطفت بها على المجزوم جزمت نحو لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَقْعُدْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا احكامها كلها‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـعَطْفُ (The conjoining of words) is the joining of the second word to the first word (which immediately precedes it) by means of حَرْفٌ (a particle) from حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles).  حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (The conjoining particles) are ten. They  are: الْـوَاوُ (and),  الْفَـــــاءُ (and so),  ثُـمَّ (then), ‏‮ ‬‬أَو(or),  أَمْ (or), إِمَّا (or), بَـلْ (but rather / on the contrary), لاَ (nor), لَــكِنْ (but) and حَـتَّى (until) in some places.  And so if you conjoin by them what is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ you put the conjoined word also in the case of rafʿ or naṣb or khafḍ. And so, you say في‏ العطف when (conjoining words) that  are in the case of rafʿ: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَمْرُو (Zayd and ʿAmr came) and for what is in the case naṣb رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) and for what is in the case of khafḍ مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْروٍ (I passed by Zayd and).  And it is like that if you conjoin by them (حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ [the conjoining particles]) words in the case of jazm.  You put them in the case of jazm like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقْعُدْ (Zayd didn’t stand and he didn’t sit) and similar are the rules for each of them.

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن حَتَّى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تكون عاطفة إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬إذا أدخلت ما بعدها في‏‮ ‬‬حكم ما قبلها نحو أَكَـلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى رَأَسَهَا أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رَأَسَهَا ما كول أيضًا ونحو مَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إن الأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الذين قد مَاتوا أيضًا وقد تكون‏‮ ‬‬غير عاطفة إذا لم تكن كذلك كما اذا خفضت الرّأس أو الأَنْبِيَاء بعدها و تكون حينئذ حرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬بمعنى‏‮ “‬‬إِلى‏‮” ‬‬ويكون ما بعدها‏‮ ‬‬غير داخل في‏‮ ‬‬الحكم ما قبلها أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رأسها‏‮ ‬‬غير مأكول والأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬غير مِمَّنْ‏‮ ‬‬مات

(*note in English)

حتّى ([hattaa] – until) is not عَاطِف (a conjoining particle) unless it includes what comes after it in الْحُكْم (the decree) for what comes before it, (that is to say what has been decreed for the word preceding حَـتَّى [hattaa] must have also been decreed for the word that follows it) – like when you say: أَكِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَـتَّى رَأَسَـهَآ –  (I ate the fish even its head – that is to say that its head was eaten also) and  مَــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ (The people died even the prophets – that is to say: the prophets died also). It is not a conjoining particle if it is not being used like this.  For example, if the word الرَّأْس which came after حَـتَّى was caused to be in the case of  khafḍ, in that case حَـتَّى will be a preposition with its meaning being إِلَـى (up to the time; until) and what comes after it is not included in the decree for what is coming before it – that is to say, that the head was not eaten and the prophets were not among those who died.

 

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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتِ

11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْعُوتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضِهِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَعْرِيفِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَنْكِيرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬العَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

النّعت  تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لـِ (The adjective agrees with) الـْمَنْعُوت (the noun being described) فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ (in its rafʿ case) وَنَصْبِهِ (and in its naṣb case) خَفْضِهِ (and in its khafḍ case) وَتَعْرِيفهِ (and in its definiteness) وَتَنْكِِـرهِ (and in its indefiniteness). ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ(You say): قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd stood) وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (and I saw the intelligent Zayd) وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ (and I passed by the intelligent Zayd).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

النعت تابع‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على صفة من صفات منعوته وهو‏‮ ‬‬يتبع الـمنعوت في‏‮ ‬‬رفعه إن كان‏‮  ‬‬مرفوعًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬نصبه إن كان منصوبًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬خفضه إن كان مخفوضًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه إن كان مَعْرِفَةً‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره إن كان نكرة مثال ذلك في‏‮ ‬‬الرفع جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬الخفض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮ ‬‬ومثل ذلك جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ‏‮  ‬‬فالعاقل ومومن نعت لزيد ورجل‏‮ ‬‬يتبعانهما في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابهما رفعًا ونصبًا وخفضًا والعاقل تابع لزيد في‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه ومومن تابع لرجل في‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّعْتُ (the adjective) تَابِعٌ (is an appositive) which demonstrates صِفَــةٌ (a characteristic) from the صِفَاتٌ (characteristics) of مَنْعُوتِهِ (the noun it characterizes).  It follows the الْـمَنْعُوت (the characterized noun) in its  rafʿ case, if it is in the case of rafʿ, and in its naṣb case if it is in the case of naṣb, and in its khafḍ if it is in the case of khafḍ, and in its definiteness if it is definite,  and in its indefiniteness if it is  indefinite.   The example of this in the case of raf’ is: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd has come);‏‮ ‬‬and in the case of naṣb: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (I saw the intelligent  Zayd);  `and  in  the  case  of   khafḍ:    مَـــرَرْتُ بِزَيــــــدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَــــاقِلِ (I passed by the intelligent Zayd).  And similar to these you say:  جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ (a believing man came to me) in the case of rafʿ, and in the case of naṣb: أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا (I honored a believing man) and in the case of khafḍ: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ (I passed by a believing man) and so الْعَاقِل and مُومِن are attributes of زَيْدٍ and رَجُلٌ which agree with them in their iʿraab, in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ and الْعَاقِل agrees with زَيْد  in its definiteness  and  مُومِـن  agrees  with رَجُل  in  its  indefiniteness and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

التّوابع هي‏‮ ‬‬كل ثان تبع ما قبله في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابه وهي‏‮ ‬‬أربعة النّعت والعطف والتوكيد والبدل

(*note in English)

التَّوَابِعُ (The appositives) are every second noun which agrees with what comes before it in its iʿraab.  They are four (kinds): النَّعْتُ (the descriptive word),‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفُ (the conjoining word , التَّوْكِيدُ (the emphasizing word), and الْبدَلُ (the substitute word).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالـْمَعْرِفَةُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَكَّةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْهَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالْـمُعْرِفَةُ (And the definite noun is) خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬(five things): الْـمُضْمَرُ (the pronoun) – نَحْوُ (like) أَنَا (I) وَأَنْتَ and (you)‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (and the proper noun) – نَحْوُ (like): زَيْدٌ (Zayd) وَمَكَّة and (Makkah) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُبْهَمُ (and the demonstrative pronoun) – نَحْوُ  (like): هَذَا (this – masc.), وَهَذِهِ and (this – fem.) وَهَؤُلاَءِ and (these – masc. & fem. pl.) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ (and the definite noun to which اَلْ has been prefixed) – نَحْوُ (like): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْغُلاَمُ and (the servant)وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى (and that which has been constructed to) وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬(one) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ (of these four [above mentioned kinds]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمَعْرِفَة هي‏‮ ‬‬ما وُضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬لِيدلّ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬شيء بعينه وأنواعها خمسة الأوّل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمضمر مثل أَنَا وأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُوَ‏‮  ‬‬الثّاني‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم العلَم مثل زَْيد و فَاطِمَة ومَكَّة الثّالث‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إسم الإشارة مثل هذا وهذه وهؤلآء الرّابع‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمعرَّف بأَلْ‏‮ ‬‬مثل الفرس والفارس الخامس‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬ما أُضِيف الى كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬من هذه الأنواع الأربعة مثل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هذا وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَْجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا النّكرة الـمضافة الى ما أُضِيف إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة نحو اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وابْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وإلى آخره

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَعْرِفَةُ (the definite noun) is that word which has been constructed to indicate the individuality of a thing.  Its kind is five.  The first is  الْـمُضْمَــــرُ  (the pronoun) – like:  أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ.  The second is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اْلعَلَمُ (the proper noun) – like زَيْد (Zayd) and فَاطِمَةُ (Faatimah) and  مَكَّةُ (Makkah).  The third is إِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِشَارَةِ (the demonstrative pronoun) – like: هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ.  The fourth is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعَرَّفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِال  (the definite noun prefixed with ال) like: الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَارِسُ.  The fifth is the noun which is joined to any of the other above mentioned four kinds  like: غُلاَمِي  (my servant)  and   غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا (the servant of this [one]) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬(the servant of the man). Thus the case is similar with the indefinite noun that has been constructed to a noun which has been joined to one of the four above mentioned  kinds: like اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي ( The son of my servant) and اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The son of the servant of Zayd) and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

ن كل نكرة أُضِيفَت إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة تصير مَعْرِفَةً‏‮ ‬‬بإِضافتها إليها فغلام مثلاً‏‮ ‬‬نكِرة فإن أضفته إلى الضّمير فقلت‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬صار معرفة و كذا إن اضفته إلى العَلَم الباقي‏‮

(*note in English)

Every indefinite noun that is constructed to one of the four kinds of definite nouns (mentioned above) becomes definite as a result of its construction to it (the definite noun).  And so غُلاَمٌ for example is indefinite, however if you construct it to the pronoun and say غُلاَمِي it becomes definite.  And similarly, if you construct it to the rest of the definite words (mentioned above it becomes definite).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصُّ‏‮  ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ءَاخَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقْرِيبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفَرَسُ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالنَّكِرَةُ (And the indefinite noun is) كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ (every common  noun) [wherein] ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِــهِ (in  its  class), ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصّ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ (one noun is not distinguishable) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬آخَرَ (from another). وَتَقْرِيبُهُ (One of its characteristics is) [that]‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬ (it is every noun for which the prefixing of اَلْ is allowed) – نَحْوُ (like when you say): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْفَرَسُ (and t he mare).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن النّكرة هي‏‮ ‬‬كل اسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنسه لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره مثل رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنه إسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنس الرّجال لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يطلق على كل فرد منهم و لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره و علامة النكرة أن‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليها نحو‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬و فَرَسٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنّهما‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليهما فتقول الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬و الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّكِرَةِ (the indefinite noun) is every common noun among its kind.  One thing is not distinguished by it from another like رُجُلٌ.  And so it (رُجُلٌ) is a noun common to the species of men, because it applies to everyone of them while one is not distinguished from another.  The sign of the indefinite noun is that the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for it – like (the words) غُلاَمٌ  and فَرَسٌ; the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for them and so you say: الْغُلاَمُ and اَلْفَرَسُ.

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