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A More Extensive Discussion About بَابُ‏ ‬الاِعْرَاب (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection]) from The Ajurruumiyyah with Endnotes

 بَابُ‏ ‬الاِعْرَاب  (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection])

Arabic Text:

 ‏(‬الاِِعْرَابُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬تَغْيِيرُ‏ ‬اَواَخِرِ‏ ‬الْكَلِمِ‏ ‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏ ‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏ ‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬عَـلَيهَا لَفْظًا أَوْ‏ ‬تَقْدِيرًا‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

الاعراب is الـمبتدأ (the subject) in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ  is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

هُـوَ تَـغْيِيرُ is a phrase which consists of هو which is ضمير فصل (a pronoun of separation) and the noun تغيير which is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject noun) الاعراب in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that تغيير is in the case of rafʿ  is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end. تغيير is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

أَوَاخِـرِ is مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [تغيير]) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah  construction).  The sign that أَوَاخِـرِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been  clearly affixed to its end.  أَوَاخِـر  is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الْكَلِمِ‏ ‬is  مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [أَوَاخِرِ) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign that الْـكَلِمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been  clearly affixed to its end.

لاِخْـتِلافِ is a phrase which consists of لِـ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and اِخْـتِلاف which  مجرورٌ‏ ‬بالالجار (the noun in the case of jarr because of the preposition).   The sign which demonstrates that  اِخْـتِلافِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

لفظًا اَوُ‏ ‬تقديرًا  is a phrase which consists of the noun لفظًا which is حال (a conditional phrase) in the case of naṣb and اَوُ which is حرف جرّ (a conjunction) and‏ ‬تقديرًا which is also حال in the case of naṣb and معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [لفظًا]).  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of naṣb is also in the case of naṣb. The sign which demonstrates that the two nouns لفظًا‏ ‬and تقديرًا  are in the case of naṣb is a fat-ḥah which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

English Translation of the Text:

اَلاِعْـرَاب  is the changing  of the end (last letter) of words  because of the different  kinds  of  عَـوَامِـل (governors or governing factors)  الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬ًعَلَىهَا  (preceding or affecting them).  [This change] is لَفْظاً (by expression) orتَقْدِيرًا (by implication).

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

‏ ‬الاِِعْراَبُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬تَغْيِيرُ‏ ‬اَوَخِرِالْكَلِمِ‏ ‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏ ‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏ ‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏ ‬ًعَلَىهَا لَفْظاً‏ ‬أَوْ‏ ‬تَقْدِيرًا انّ‏ ‬هذا التّغيير اللاّحق‏  ‬في‏ ‬اواخرَ‏ ‬الكلم‏  ‬قد‏ ‬يكون لفظًا كقولك جاء زيدٌ‏ ‬و رأيت زيدًا و مررت بزيدٍ‏ ‬و قد‏ ‬يكون تقديرًا كقولك جاء الفتَى ورأيت الفتَىو مررت بالفتَى فانّ‏ ‬التّغيير الذي‏ ‬في‏ ‬آخر زيد ظاهر ملفوظ والتّغيير الذي‏ ‬في‏ ‬آخر الفتَى مقدّر منويّ‏ ‬لأنه مبني‏ ‬على الالف المقصورة ولهذا قلنا أنّ‏ ‬التّغيير‏ ‬يكون لفظًا او تقديرًا

Explanation in English:

اَلاِعْـرَاب 1is the changing of the end (last letter) of words2 because of the different (kind of) عَوَامِل (governors) preceding them or governing factors3 affecting.  (This change) is لَفْظاً (by expression) or تَـقْدِيرًا (by implication)4.  This affixed change which is at the end of words is ‏ ‬لَفْظًاlike when you say: جََاءَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd came) and رَأَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا (I saw Zayd) and‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزَيْدٍ (I passed by Zayd).  It is تَقْدِيرًا  when you say: جَاءَ‏ ‬الْفَتَى (the youth came) and رََأَيْتُ‏ ‬الْفَتَى (I saw the youth) and مَـرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِــالْـفتَى (I passed by the youth).  And so the change which occurred at the end of the word زَيْـد is ظَاهِـر (clear) and ملَفُوظ (expressed) and the change (which should have occurred) at the end of اَلْفَتَى is (implied) and مَـنْوِيٌّ (intended) because it (اَلْـفَتَى) is  مَـبْنِي‏ ‬على الالف المقصورة‏ = ‬ى (its construction is fixed on the alif maqṣuurah5 and unchangeable).  For this reason we have said, that the change is لَـفْظًا or تَقْدِيرًا.       ‬

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَ‏‬اَقْسَامُهُ‏ ‬اَرْبَعَةٌ‏: ‬رَفْعٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ نَصْبٌ‏ ‬وَ‏‬خَفْضٌ‏ ‬وَ‏‬جَزْمٌ‏ ‬فَلِلاَسْمَاءِ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلِكَ الرَّفْعُ‏ ‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏ ‬وَالْخَفْضُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬لاَ‏ ‬جََزْمَ‏ ‬فِيهَا وَ‏‬لِلاَفْعَالِ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلكَِ‏ ‬الرَّفْعُ‏ ‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬الْجَزْمُ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬خَفْضَ‏ ‬فِيهَا‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text

واَقْسَامُهُ is a phrase which consists of وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْتِئْنَاف (the resumptive waaw) and اقسام which is المبتدأ (the subject) in the case of rafʿ and ـه which is ضمير متصل (an attached pronoun).  The sign which demonstrates that اَقْـسَامُ  is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  اَقْـسَامُ is also مضاف (an ajoined noun) and ـه is  مضاف إليه (the noun conjoined to it [اقسام]) and as a result, itis standing in the place of مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrated that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مَبْنِي (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah.

اَرْبَعَةٌ is خَبْرُ‏ ‬الْمُبْتَدَإِ (the predicate of the subject noun) اَقْسَامُ and is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

رَفْعٌ is بَدلُ‏ ‬بَعْضٍ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬كُلٍّ (a substitute of a part for the whole) for اربعة.  If اربعة is remove from the statement, رفع can stand in its place. رفع is the case of rafʿ, because the substitute for a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that رَفْعٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏نَصْبٌ is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَـطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) and the noun نصب which is مَعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun نَـصْبٌ is the case of rafʿ, because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of raf.‏ ‬The sign which demonstrates that نَـصْبٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬خَـفْضٌ is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَـطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) و and the noun خفض which is مَـعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun خَفْضٌ is the case of rafʿ,  because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of rafʿ.‏ ‬ The sign which demonstrates that خَفْضٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏جَـزْمٌ  is a phrase which consists of و which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَطْفٍ (a particle of conjunction) و and the noun  جزم which is مَـعْطُوفٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]).  The noun جَـزْمٌ is the case of rafʿ, because a noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿis also in the case of raf.‏  ‬ The sign which demonstrates that جَزْمٌ is the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.    

فَلِلاَسْـمَاءِ is a phrase which consists of  فـَاءُ‏ ‬الْفَصِيحَة (the clarifying faa),  لِـ which is حَرْفُ‏ ‬الْجَرِّ (the preposition)  and الاسماء which is مَجْرُورٌ‏ ‬بالْجَارّ (a noun in the case of jarr because of the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that الاَسْـمَاءِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

مِنْ‏ ‬ذَلِكَ is a  phrase which consists of  مِنْ which is حرف جرّ (the preposition) and ذا which is اسم الإشارة (the demonstrative pronoun) and  لِـ which has لام البعد (the laam denoting distance) and كاف الخطاب (the kaaf of the one being spoken to [the second person pronoun]).  ذَلِكَ is standing in the place of  مجرور بالجارّ (a noun which is in the case of jarr because of the preposition).  The sign that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because كَ which is  كاف الخطاب (the kaaf of the one being spoken to [the second person pronoun]) مبني(is fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah.

رَفْعٌ is مبتدأ مُؤَخَّرٌ (a subject noun that follows the predicate) and it is in the case of rafʿwhich is demonstrated by a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏ ‬نَصْبٌis a phrase which consists of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjugation) و and نَصْبٌ which is المطعوف إليه (the noun that which has been conjoined to it [رفع]) . The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ. The sign which demonstrates that نَصْبٌ is in the case of rafʿis a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬خَفْضٌ  is a phrase which consists of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjugation) and خفض which is  المطعوف إليه (the noun cojoined to it [رفع]). The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that خَفْضٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬لاَ‏ ‬جَزْمَ is  a  phrase  which  consists  of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) and لاَ‏ ‬which is لا نَافِيَةِ‏ ‬الْجِنْسِ(laa of absolute negation of the [kind] of thing being mentioned). لا causes its noun to be مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and therefore, there is no اعراب for it.   Its noun جزم is مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb.  This is because لا نَافِيَةِ‏ ‬الْـجِنْس does the work of  إِنَّ – causing its noun to carry fat-ḥah and its predicate to carry ḍammah.

فِيهَا is a phrase which consists of  فِـي which is  حَرْفُ‏ ‬جَـرّ (a preposition)  and ـهَا which is ضمير متصل (an attached pronoun) which is standing in the place of a noun in the case of jarr (or khafd).  The sign ـهَا is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construction) on alif.

فللافعال من ذلك الرفع والنصب والجزم ولا خفض فيها The explanation of for each part of this sentence is the same as the explanation for each part of the previous sentence.

English Translation of the Text:

وَ‏‬اَقْـسَمُهُ (and its parts) are four:  رَفْـعٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬نَـصْبٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬خَـفْضٌ‏ ‬،‏ ‬جَـزْمٌ.   And so  لِلاسْـمَاءِ (the nouns)‏ ‬can have اَلرفْع،النَّصْب،اَلْخَفْض (the case endings of rafʿ6, naṣb7, and khafḍ8 [affixed to their last letter] but  no t‏ ‬اَلجَزْمْ (the case of jazm9).  لِلافْعَال [the verbs]can have اَلرَّفْع‏ ‬،‏ ‬اَلنَّصْب‏ ‬،‏ ‬الْجَزْم (the cases of rafʿnaṣb, and jazm) [affixed to their last letter], but not اَلْخَفْض (the case of khafḍ).

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

واقسامه اربعة رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬وخفضٌ‏ ‬و جزمٌ‏ ‬انّ‏ ‬قسما من اقسام الاعراب مشترك بين الاسماء و الافعال قسمًا منها مختصّ‏ ‬بكل منهما وامّا الحروف فلا‏ ‬يدخلها شيء من اقسام‏ ‬الاعراب لانّها مبنيّة فامّا القسم المشترك بينها هو رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬لانّهما‏ ‬يدخلان اَلأسْـمَاء والأَفْـعَال كقولك زيدٌ‏ ‬يضربُ‏ ‬ولن اضربَ‏ ‬زيدًا والقسم المختصّ‏ ‬هو الخفض والجزم فالخفض مختصّ‏ ‬بالاسم و الجزم مختصّ‏ ‬بالفعل كقولك لم اذهبْ‏ ‬بعبّاسٍ

Explanation in English:

And it (اعراب) has four parts رفعٌ‏ ‬ونصبٌ‏ ‬وخفضٌ‏ ‬وجزمٌ.  One part of (الاعراب) is common between الإسم and الفعل and another part of it is exclusive is to each of them10. As for الحروف (the particles), nothing from اقسام الاعراب (the parts of iʿraab) is affixed to them, because they are fixed at‏ ‬their end. The common parts between اَلأسْـمَاء (the nouns) and الأَفْـعَال (the verbs) are: اَلرَّفْعُ (the rafʿ case) and اَلنَّصْب (the naṣb case), because both cases occur  in  الإسْـم and اَلْْفِعْل – like when you  say: يَضْرِبُ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd beat…) in the case of الرَّفْع and لَنْ‏ ‬اَضْرِبَ‏ ‬زَيْدًا (I never beat Zayd) in the case of النَّصْب.  The  exclusive parts are اَلْخَفْض (the khafḍ case) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case). اَلْـخَفْض (the  khafḍ case) is exclusively affixed to اَلأسْماء (nouns) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case) is exclusively affixed to اَلافْـعَال (verbs) – like when you say: لَمْ‏ ‬اَذْهَـبْ‏ ‬بِعَبَّاسٍ (I did not  go with ʿAbbaas).

Endnotes: 

1  The literal meaning of اِعْرَاب is that which is clearly apparent to the sight; obvious ; something that is shown plainly ; something noticeable or clearly visible; something that is  expressed or pronounced;  [Arabic grammar meaning]: inflection (that is to say: changing the last part of a word).

2 This affixed change at the end of the word helps one to determine the role the word is playing in a phrase, clause or sentence.

3 Governing factor here means : a rule of grammar.

4 لفظًا او تقديرًا literally means explicitly (or by expression) or implicily ( or by implication) and what is mean in the text is  ‏ ‬مَلْفُوظًا او مُقَدَّرًا(expressed or implied).

5  Alif maqsuurah ى which resembles the letter yaa without dots is a letter which cannot be inflected when affixed to the end of words.  This is do to its nature in that it should only be vocalized with the a sound that is the equivalent of two fat-ḥahs ــَـ ــَـ , whike the affixing of ḍammah to it would be burdensome on the tongue.   Thus the end of الفتى must remain fixed in its condition regardless of its case of اعراب.

6 The rafʿcase is the case wherein a word has ḍammah ــُـ or a substitute for ḍammah affixed to its end.

7 The naṣb case is the case wherein a word has fatḥah ــَـ or a substitute for fatḥah affixed to its end.

8  The khafḍ case is the case wherein a word has kasrah ــِـ or a substitute for kasrah affixed to its  end.

9 The jasm case is the case wherein a word has sukuun ــْـ or a substitute for sukuun affixed to its end.

10 That is to say:  part of these اعراب (cases / case endings) are common among both اَلاَسْمَاء (the nouns) and اَلأَفْعَال (verbs) and a part of them is affixed to the end of اَلأسْمَاء exclusively and a another part is affixed to the end of اَلأفْعَال exclusively.  As for اَلْحُرُوف (the particles), nothing from عَلاَمَاتُ‏ ‬الإعْرَاب (the signs of i’raab) precede them or causes their last vowel to change.  That is because they are مَبْنِيَّةٌ ([fixed] – that is to say their last vowel is unchangeable).

A More Extensive Discussion About بَابُ‏ ‬الْكَلاَم (The Chapter About Speech) from The Ajurruumiyyah

بسم الله الرحمــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

قال الْـمُصَـنِّف

وهو أبو عبد الله محمد بن محمد بن داوود الصنهاجي‏ ‬الـْمُـلَـقَّب بابن آجُرُّوم الذي‏ ‬وُلِد في‏ ‬سنة اثنتين‏ ‬وسبعين وستمائة والمتوفي‏ ‬في‏ ‬سنة ثلاث وعشرين وسبعمائة من الهجرة النبوية رحمه الله قال‏:

 ‬بسم الله الرحمــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

The author – and he is Abū ʿAbdullāhi Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Dāwūd aṣ-Ṣanhaajī known as Ibn Aajurruum1 who was born in the year 672 and who died in the year 723 after the Prophetic hijrah may Allah have mercy on him said:

  ‬بسم الله الرحمـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــن الرحيم

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

بِـسْمِ‏ ‬- is a phrase which consists of البَاء = بـِـ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and اسم which is مجرورًا بالجارّ ( a noun in the case of jarr because the preposition) بِـ.  The sign that اِسْـمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah that has been clearly affixed to its end.  اسم is also مُـضَافٌ (a conjoined noun).

اللَّهِ is مُـضَافٌ‏ ‬إِلَـيْهِ (a noun conjoined to it [اسم]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case jarr of due to the iḍaafah [construction]).  The sign which demonstrates that اللَّهِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

الرَّحْـمَـــنِ is صِـفَةٌ (an adjective / attribute) for اللَّهِ and as a result, it is case of jarr.  An adjective / attribute for a noun in the case jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign that الرَّحْمَـــنِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

الرَّحِـيمِ is صِـفَةُ‏ ‬ثَانٍ (a second adjective/attribute) for اللَّهِ and as a result, it is in the case of jarr.  An adjective / attribute for a noun in the case jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign that الرَّحيِمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

بِـسْمِ(In the Name of)اللَّهِ(Allahالرَّحْـمَــن(the Compassionate)الرَّحِيمِ(the Merciful)

Explanation of the Text in Arabic:

ابتدأ المصنف بالبسملة اقتداءًَ‏ ‬بالقرآن الكريم وعملاً‏ ‬بقول رسول اللّه صلّي‏ ‬اللّه عليه و سلّم‏ ((‬كل أمر ذي‏ ‬بال لا‏ ‬يبدأ فيه بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم فهو أقطع‏)) ‬اي‏ ‬حال‏ ‬يهتم به شرعًا لا‏ ‬يبدأ فيه بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم فهو ابتر أو اجذم أو اقطع

Explanation in English:

The author has started with  البسملة (the Basmalah)2 following the example of the Noble Qur’ān, and has acted according to the saying of the Messenger of Allah صلّى الله عليه وسلّم , “Every important matter which does not begin with بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم should be أَقْطَعٌ (interrupted)” – that is to say a matter which is considered important  from the start which  does  not  begin  with   بسم اللّه‏ ‬الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم should be أَبْتَرٌ (cut) or إِجْـذََمٌ (cut off) or أَقْطَعٌ (cut short / interrupted).

بَابُ‏ ‬الْكَلاَم   1– (The Chapter About  Speech) 

Arabic Text:

(اَلْكَلاَمُ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬اللَّفْظُ‏ ‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏ ‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏ ‬بِالْوَضْعِ)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

The word اَلْـكَلاَمُ consists of the noun كَـلاَم and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific. اَلْـكَلاَم is also  الـمٌبْتَدَأ (the subject noun).  It is in the case of rafʿ because it is الـمبتدأ (the subject of the sentence and the noun which begins the sentence).  It is not governed by خافض أو ناصب أو جازم (any particle of khafḍ or naṣb or jazm).  The sign which demonstrates that اَلْـكَلاَمُ is in the case of rafʿ is an expressed ḍammah which has been  clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word هُوَ (huwa)3 ضمير فصل (a pronoun of separation) that is مبني على الفتح (fixed in its construction on the fat-ḥah).

The word اللَّفْظ  (al-lufḍh)4 consists of the noun لَـفْط and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  اللَّفْظُ is خبر الكلام (the predicate of the subject noun اَلْكَلاَم) in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that اللَّفْظ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word الـْـمُرَكَّبُ consists of the noun مُـرَكَّب  and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الـْمُرَكَّب is نَعْت (an adjective for اللَّفْظ).   The adjective of a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that الـْـمُرَكَّبُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been  clearly affixed to its last letter.

The word الـْمُفِيدُ consists of the noun مُفِيد  and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.   الـْـمُفِيد is نعت (an adjective) for اللَّفْطُ.  Therefore, the adjective of a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that الـْـمُفِيدُ is in the case of rafʿ is a clearly expressed ḍammah which has been affixed to its last letter.

The phrase بِـالْـوَضْـعِ consist of the noun  وَضْـع, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and the particle بـِ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition).  The  definite noun الْـوَضْـعِ is therefore, مجرور بالجرّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition  بـِ)   The sign which demonstrates  الْوَضْعِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been affixed to its last letter.

 ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮)

English Translation:

الْـكَلاَمُ‮ ‬(Speech) هُـوَ (is) اللَّفْظُ (expression [which is articulated]الـْـمُرَكَّبُ (composite)5 الـْـمُفِيدُ (informative) بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (in accordance with customary usage and [regulated] by conventional [Arabic] rules)6.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

اَلْكَلاَمُ‏  هُوَ‏  اللَّفْظُ‏  الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏  الْـمُفِيدُ‏  بِالْوَضْعِ‏  العربي‏  فلا بدَّ‏  الكلام العربي‏  أن‏  يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏  أن‏  يكون لفظًا وأن‏  يكون مركبًا وأن‏  يكون مفيدًا وأن‏  يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏  فأمّا معنى كونه لفظًا فأن‏ يُلْفَظَ‏  صوتيّــًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الأبجديّة كقولك مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وعَلِيٌّ‏  وذَهَبَ‏  فكلّ‏  كلمة من هذه الكلمات الثلاثة تكون صوتًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الهجائيّة العربيّة‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مركّبًا فأن‏  يكون الكلام العربي‏  مؤلّفًا من كلمتين أو أكثرَ‏  نحو عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏  وإِذَا جاَءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وطُلُوعُ‏  الشَّمْسِ‏  وكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات مركّبةٌ‏  غيرُ‏  مفيدةٍ‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مفيدًا فأن‏  يَكْفي‏  سكوتُ‏  الـمتكلم عليه بحيثُ‏  لا‏  يبقى السّامع منتظرًا لشيء آخر فإذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  هذه العبارة ليست مفيدةً‏  لأنّها لا تفيد الـمخاطب فائدةً‏  تامّةً‏  ولكن إذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  إِلَى بَيْتي‏  فَاَكْرِمْهُ‏  فهذه العبارة أفادت إفَادة  كَافيةً‏  والسامع بها لا‏  ينتنظر أكثر من هذه‏

وأمّا معنى كونه موضوعًا بالوضع العربي‏  هي‏  بثلاث حالات أولها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التي‏  وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى ذات شخص نحو مُحَمَّدٌ‏  أو   للدلالة على معنى ذات مكان نحو مَسْجِدٌ‏  أو للدلالة على معنى ذات شيء نحو كِـتَابٌ‏  فيسمّى كل لفظ من هذه الألفاظ إسمًا

‏  ثانيها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى‏   وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى حصول الحدث بأحد الأزمنة الثلاثة وهي‏  الفعل الماضي  أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث وقع قبل زمان التَّكلُّم نحو ذَهَبَ‏  والفعل المضارع أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يقع في‏  زمان التكلُّم أو بعده كقولك‏  يَذْهَبُ‏  وفعل الأمر أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يُطلَب حصوله بعد زمان التكلُّم نحو إذْهَبْ‏

ثالثها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى وضعها العرب  غير تامّ  الْـمعنى حتّى تُضَمَّ‏  إلى كلمة  غيرها وهي‏  كقولك هَلْ‏  ومِنْ‏  ولَمْ‏   فإذا قلت هَلْ‏  ذَهَبَ‏  ومِنَ‏  الـْمَسْجِدِ‏  ولَمْ‏  يَخْرُجْ‏  فكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات‏  الثّلاثة لم‏  يُفْهَم معناها تامـّــًا حتّى تضمّ‏  إلى كلمة‏  غيرها وتسمّى كل عبارة من هذه العبارات الثلاثة حرفًا فالإسم والفعل والحرف تكون من حالات الكلام الثلاثة التي‏  وضعها العرب بالوضع العربي

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional ʿArabic rules.  Undoubtedly, ʿArabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَفْظـًا (expressed),  مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that ʿArabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (ʿAlī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مَـرَكَّبًا , ʿArabic speech is composed of two or more words7 – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬(ʿAbdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحُـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَذْهَبُ (he is going), and the ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs – their purpose is not completely understood until they are placed next to another word.  They are like: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ and so if you say: هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ (did he go) and مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ (from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏‮ ‬‬ And so, الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have been regulated with conventional ʿArabic rules.

تَنْبِيه  – Note / Rule in Arabic 

وقلنا عند النحويين أنّ‏ ‬الكلام العربي‏ ‬أن‏ ‬يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏ ‬أن‏ ‬يكون لفظًا وأن‏ ‬يكون مركبًا وأن‏ ‬يكون مفيدًا وأن‏ ‬يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏ ‬فخرج الكلام عند اللغويين عن قولنا عند النحويين فهو عندهم كلّ‏ ‬قولٍ‏ ‬مفردٍ‏ ‬كَزيدٍ‏ ‬أو مركّبٍ‏  ‬كَقَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬أو ما حصل به الافهام سواء أكان لفطًا أم لم‏ ‬يكن كأشارة وكتابة فالأشارة مثلاً‏ ‬إذا قلت لك أَوَصَلتَ‏ ‬أَمْسًافأشرْتَ‏ ‬إليّ‏ ‬بحركة رأسك رفعًا وخفضًافأناأفهم أنّك تقول لي‏ ‬نَعَمْ‏  ‬وخرج الكلام عند الفقهاء فهو عندهم ما بطل الصلاة من حرفٍ‏ ‬مُفْهَمٍ‏ ‬كَقافٍ‏ ‬=‬‏ ((‬ق‏)) ‬أو عينٍ‏ ‬=‬‏ ((‬ع‏)) ‬أو حرفين‏ ‬

وإنْ‏ ‬لم‏ ‬يُفهَمَا كَمِنْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَنْ‏ ‬وخرج الكلام‏  ‬عندالـمتكلّميين أيّ‏ ‬علماء التوحيد فهو عندهم عبارة عن الـمعنى القائم بذات اللّه تعالى الخالى عن حرف والصوت و قال الله في‏ ‬كتابه الكريم‏: ‬هُوَ‏ ‬الذِي‏ ‬أَنْزَلَ‏ ‬عَلَيْكُمُ‏ ‬الْكِتَابَ‏ ‬مِنْهُ‏ ‬ءَايَات‏ ‬ٌ‏ ‬مُّحْكَمَاتٌ‏ ‬هُنَّ‏ ‬أُمُّ‏ ‬الْكِتَابِ‏ ‬وَأُخَرُ‏ ‬مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ‏ ‬فقال الله تعالى عن هذه الآيات‏: ‬وَمَا‏ ‬يَعْلَمُ‏ ‬تَاوِيلَهُو‏ ‬إِلاَّ‏ ‬اللّهُ‏ ‬فعند الـمتكلّميين‏  ‬تَاوِيل الآيات قائم باللّه كلامًا وإنْ‏ ‬ما أنرل اللّة علينا عنها ءاياتًا أو حرفًا أو صوتًا‏  ‬

تَنْبِيه  – Note / Rule in English

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on fourthings.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏ ‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning  الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayåts) that are clear and these are foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayåts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6 

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as  الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وأَقْسَامُهُ‏ ‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏ ‬إِسْمٌ‏ ‬وَفِعْلٌ‏ ‬وَحَرْفٌ‏ ‬جَاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنًى‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

The phrase وَاَقْـسَامُـهُ consist of و which is وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و – the waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) and اَقْـسَامُُ which is مبتدأ (a subject noun)8 in the case of rafʿ, and that is because it is the noun which begins the sentence. اَقْـسَامُ is also المضاف -[which literally means the noun which has had something constructed to it or placed next to it and ــهُ  is an attached pronoun which is standing in the place of a noun which is مضاف إليه9 – (which literally means: the thing which has been constructed to it or placed next to it).   That is to say, ــهُ is the part of speech which has been constructed and placed side by side with  اَقْسَامُُ and it is standing in the place of a noun which is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The pronoun ــهُ is مَـبْنِى  (fixed  in its construction) on ḍammah and therefore, the inflective change can not be seen at its end. The pronounــهُhas been constructed toأَقْـسَامُ to show a relationship between a possessed thing and its possessor. The possessor is ــهُ(its) which is standing in the place of the noun (‏ ‬الكلام) and the thing being possessed is  أَقْسَامُ (parts)10.

ثَـلاثَـةٌ is خبر اَقْـسَام (the predicate of the subject noun  اَقْسَامُ) and is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

اِسْـمٌ is بَـدَلُ‏ ‬بَـعْضٍ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬كُـلٍّ (a substitute word which is a portion of the whole amount) or بَـدَلُ‏ ‬مُـفَصِّلٍ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬مُجْـمَلٌ (a substitute word that has been mentioned in place the whole)11 that whole is noun  ثَـلاثَـةٌ (three) which is in the case of rafʿ.  The substitute for a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case rafʿ.   The sign that demonstrates that اِسْـمٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

وَفِـعْلٌ is a phrase which consist of حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) وَ and the noun فِـعْلٌ which is مطعوف عليه (conjoined or linked  to it  [اِسْمٌ] by وَ.  The noun that is linked to a noun in the case of rafʿ by the conjunction وَ is also in the case rafʿ.  The sign that demonstrates that  فِعْلٌ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

وَحَـرْفٌ is a phrase which consist of حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) وَ and the noun حَرْفٌ which is مطعوف عليه (conjoined or linked  to it  [اِسْمٌ] by وَ.  The noun that is linked to a noun in the case of rafʿ by the conjunction وَ is also in the case rafʿ.  The sign that demonstrates that حَرْفٌ in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end (last letter).

جَاءَ is فعل ماض (a past tense verb) and فاعله (its doer)  is fixed in its condition on the fat-ḥah  and therefore its end cannot be change. Its فاعله (its doer) is a permissibly concealed pronoun which implies that ‏ ‬هُوَ is the doer.  هُوَ refers back to the noun حَرْفٌ.

لـِـمَعَنىً is a phrase which consist of حرف الجر (the preposition)  لـِ and  مَـعْنَىً which is المجرور بحرف جرّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition). The sign which demonstrates that معنىً is in the case in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which has not been affixed to its end, because the last letter of معنى is ى (alif maqsuurah) and its pronunciation with kasrah would be burdensome to pronounce12.  The root of معنىً is مَـعَنِي with the letter يِ vowelized with kasrah. The letter that preceded the yaa was alif carried fat-ḥah. Two sukuuns would have come together, the sukuun of alif and the sukuun of tanwīn, and so the alif was dropped to avoid the meeting of these two sukuuns13.

English Translation of the Text:

وَأَقْـسَامُــــهُ (And its parts)ثَـلاَثَةٌ‏ ‬(are three):إِسْـمٌ(a noun) and فِـعْلٌ (a verb) and حَرْفٌ‏ ‬جَاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with a meaning14).

Explanation of Text in English:

And its parts are three: إِسْـمٌ (a noun) – like:زَيْـدٌ (Zayd) and رَجُـلٌ(man), and; فِـعْلٌ (a verb) – like: ضَـرَبَ (He beat) in the past tense, يَـضْرِبُ (He beats) in the present tense and إِضْرِبْ (Beat) in the command tense; and حَـرْفٌ‏ ‬جَـاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter coming with a meaning) -that is to say one letter by itself or two or three letters joined together that have a specific meaning like: هَـلْ (an interrogative particle that introduces a question) andفِـي(A preposition meaning ‘in’ or ‘into’ among other things) and لَـمْ (a particle of negation that is used to negate the occurrence of an action in the past).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬فَالِإسْمُ‏ ‬يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِالْخَفْضِ‏ ‬وَالتَّنْوِينِ‏ ‬وَدُخُولِ‏ ‬الأَلِفِ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمِ‏  ‬وَحُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْخَفْضِ‏ ‬وَهِيَ‏: ‬مِنْ‏ ‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏ ‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏ ‬وَرُبَّ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالْكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمُ‏ ‬وَحُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ‏ ‬وَهِيَ‏ ‬الْوَاوُ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالتَّاءُ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

فَـالإسْـمُ is a phrase which consist of the noun  إسم, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and the particle فَـ which is  فاء الفصيحة (the clarifying faa)15. The noun الاسم is مبتدأ (a subject noun) in the case of rafʿ by virtue of the fact that it begins the sentence.  The sign that demonstrates الإسْـمُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

يُـعْرَفُ is a فعل مضارع مبني للـمجهول (a present tense verb constructed on the pattern of الـْـمجْهُول [the passive voice])16 and it is in the case of rafʿ. The sign that demonstrates يُـعْرَفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  فاعل (The doer of the action) is  represented by a  permissibly concealed pronoun that implies هو is the doer. هو refers back to and is standing in the place of the noun الاسم. The  sentence which is formed from the passive voice verb يُـعْرَفُ and the permissibly concealed pronoun هو is standing in place of a predicate noun that is case of raf17.

بِـالْـخَفْضِ is a phrase which consists of the particle بـِ which is حرف جرّ (a preposition), the noun خَـفْض and the prefix الْ which causes خَـفْض to be definite and specific.  الخفض is also مجرور بالجارّ (the noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that الْـخَفْضِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  The preposition بـِ is also phrasally linked to the verb يعرف in its expression and so you say:  ‏‬يعرف بـ.   The preposition بـِ and its object الخفض along with the verb يعرف is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate for the subject noun الاسم).  This is because الاسم comes before18 يعرف.  The noun  الْـخَفْض is also  معطوف (a noun that has  another noun conjoined to it).

وَالتّنْوِينِ is a phrase which consist of the particle وَ which is حرف العطف (the conjoining particle), the noun تَـنْوِين and the prefix الْ which causes تَـنْوِين to be definite and specific.  التّنوين is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [الخفض] by the conjunction و.  The noun الخفض is in the case of jarr therefore التّنوين which is conjoined to it is also in the case of jarr.  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that التّنْوِينِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

ودُخُـولِ is a phrase which consists of و which حرف العطف (the particle of conjunction) and the noun  دخول  which is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it ([التّنوين]) by the conjunction و.  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that دُخُـولِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.   دخول is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الاَلِـفِ consist of the noun أَلِـف and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الاَلِف is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [دخول]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  الاَلِـف is also  معطوف ( a conjoined noun).

وَاللاَّمِ is a phrase which consist of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction), the noun لام and the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific and.  اللام is مطعوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [الالف]).  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that اللاَّمِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to the end.   اللام is also مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [دخول]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وحُـرُوفِ is a phrase which consists of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and حروف which is معطوف عليه ( that which has been conjoined to it [دخول].   The word conjoined to another word in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that حُـرُوفِ is the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  حروف is also  مضاف (a constructed noun).

الخَـفْضِ consist of the noun خفض, the prefix الْ which causes it to be definite and specific.  الخَفْضِ is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it  [ حروف]) and as a result, it is مجرور بالاضافة (in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction). The sign which demonstrates that الخَـفْضِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَهِـيَ is a phrase consists of و which is  وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive19 و  and هِـيَ which is ضمير منفصل (an independent pronoun) هي.  هي is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence), and مبني (fixed in its constructed on the vowel fat-ḥah) which is unchangeable.  هي is standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ, however, because هي is مبني (fixed in its construction on an unchangeable vowel), there is no sign at its end to show that it is in the case of raf….  Therefore, its case of rafʿ is implied.

مِـنْ‏ ‬وَ‏إِلَـى وَ‏عَـنْ‏ ‬وَ‏عَـلَى وَ‏فِـي‏ ‬وَ‏رُبَّ ‏‬وَ‬الْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬الْـكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّم is a phrase which consists of مِنْ‏ which  is معطوف ( a conjoined noun) and ‬إِلَـى‏ ‬, ‬عَـنْ‏ ‬, ‬عَـلَى‏ ‬, ‬فِـي‏ ‬, ‬رُبَّ which are مطعوفات عليه (linked to it [من]) by the particle of conjunction و.  The words  مِـنْ‏ ‬, إِلَـى‏ ‬, ‬عَـنْ‏ ‬, ‬عَـلَى‏ ‬, ‬فِـي‏ ‬, ‬رُبَّ are all standing in the place of a noun in the case of  rafʿ which is الخَـبْر (the predicate) for هي.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is an implied ḍammah which cannot be affixed to the end of any of them, because they are مبنية (fixed in their construction; the final vowel for each of them is not changeable under any circumstance).  They also cannot be change at their end لِـمُحَاكَـاتِـهَا لِـصُورَتِـهَا بالنَّص فقط (because they all have been expressed in their fixed condition only to illustrate a point of grammar in the text).  As for الباءُ , الكَافُ ,اللاَّم, they are also مطعوفات عليه (linked to it [من]) by the particle of conjunction و, and they in the case of rafʿ.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah, which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

وَحُـرُوفِ is a phrase which consist of و  which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and حروف is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [ حروف in the phrase حروف الخفض] which is mentioned above).    The  sign which  demonstrates that حُـرُوفِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.   حُـرُوف is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الَقسَمِ is مضاف إليه (a noun constructed to it [ حروف]) and as a result, it is  مجرور‏ ‬بالإضافة ( a noun in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَهِـيَ الوَاوُ is a phrase which consist of the particle و which is  وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و – the waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) and هي which is  ضمير‏ ‬منفصل (an independent pronoun).  هي is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence), and مبني (fixed in its constructed on the vowel fat-ḥah) which is unchangeable.  هي is standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ.  However, because هي is مبني (fixed in its construction on an unchangeable vowel), therefore, the vowel on its last letter can’t be changed.  The noun الوَاوُ which follows هي and the nouns conjoined to it are the predicate of هي and therefore, they are in the case of rafʿ.  The sign that they are in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah, which has been clearly affixed to the end of each of them.

‏ ‬والْبَاءُis a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and الْبَاء which is مضاف علي الوَاوُ (a noun constructed to the noun الوَاوُ that has been mentioned above) and as a result, the noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.

‬والتَّاءُ  is a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction) and التَّاءُ which is مضاف علي الوَاوُ (a noun constructed to the noun الوَاوُ that has been mentioned above) and as a result, the noun conjoined to a noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.

English Translation of the Text:

فَالإِسْمُُ (And so the noun) يُعْرَف بِـ (is known by)‏ ‬الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering 20[of the vowel]) وَتَنْوِينِ ‏ ‬(and tanwiin21 [adding the nuun sound to the end of the word]);

وَدُخُـولِ‏ ‬الأَلِـفِ‏ ‬اللاَّمِِ‏ ‬(and the prefixing22 of the alif and the laam – اَلْْ [the]);

and وَحَرُوفُ‏ ‬الْخَفْضِ (and the particles of khafḍ [letters] of lowering23 and they are:

;مِنْ‏ ‬وَإلَى وَعَنْ‏ ‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏ ‬وَرُبَّ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالْكَافُ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمُ

وَحَرُوفُ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ (and the particles of swearing)24 and they are:  

.الْواوُ‏ ‬وَالْبَاءُ‏ ‬وَالتَّاءُ

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

فالإسم‏ ‬يعرف بالخفض كقولك مررت بالرّجلِ‏ ‬والغلامِ‏ ‬ِوبالتّنوين كقولك زيدٌ‏ ‬ورجلٌ‏ ‬وبدخول الألف واللاّم كقولك الرّجلُ‏ ‬والغلامُ‏ ‬وبحروف الخفض وهي‏ ‬من وإلى وعن وعلى وفي‏ ‬وربّ‏ ‬والباء والكاف واللام وحروف القسم وهي‏ ‬الواو والباء والتّاء كقولك سرتُ‏ ‬من البصرةِ‏ ‬إلى الكوفةِ‏ ‬ورحلتُ‏ ‬عن البلدِ‏ ‬وصعدت على الخيلِ‏ ‬وجلست في‏ ‬البيتِ‏ ‬وربّ‏ ‬رجلٍ‏ ‬كريمٍ‏ ‬لقِيته وكتبت بالقلمِ‏ ‬وزيدٌ‏ ‬كالأسدِ‏ ‬والحمدُ‏ ‬للّهِ‏ ‬وواللّهِ‏ ‬وباللّهِ‏ ‬وتاللّهِِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الإِسْمُ (The noun) is known by:

الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering of the25 vowel, that is to say placing the vowel beneath the noun) as you would say: مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِالرَّجُلِ‏ ‬وَالْغُلاَمِ (I passed by the man and the boy);

and by التَّنْوِينِ‏ (tanwin) as you would say:زَيْدٌ (Zaydun) and رَجُـلٌ (rajulun) and مُومِنَاتٌ(muuminaatun);

and by دُخُولِ‏ ‬الأَلِفِ‏ ‬وَاللاَّمِ (the prefixing of alif and laam = اَلْ to the front of the word) – as you would say: اَلرَّجُـلُ‏ ‬وَالْـغُلاَمُ (the man and the servant boy) formed from the words:رَجُـلٌ and غُلاَمٌ;

and by the prefixing of حُـرُوفِ‏ ‬الْـخَفْضِ (the letters [particles] of khafḍ [lowering]) mainly prepositions – which cause the noun to carry  كَسْـرَة = ــِـ  / ــٍـ   as its final vowel) and they are: مِـنْ (from), إلَـى (to), عَـنْ (about, from), عَـلَى(on), فِي (in, into), رُبَّ (how many a…), اَلْـظبَاءُ = ب (by, in, with), اَلْـكَافُ‏ ‬= كَ (like, as), اللاّمُ =‏ ‬لِ (to, belonging to, for) as you would say: سِرْتُ‏ ‬مِنَ‏ ‬الْـبَصْرَةِ‏ ‬إِلَى‏ ‬الْكُوفَةِ‏ ‬(I traveled from Baṣrah to Kuufah), رَحَـلْتُ‏ ‬عَـنِ‏ ‬الْـبَلَدِ (I departed from the country),  صَـعَدتُ‏ ‬عَـلَى الـْـخَـيْـلِ  (I climbed upon the stallion),  جَـلَسْتُ‏ ‬فِـي‏ ‬الْـبَـيْتِ (I sat in the house), رُبَّ‏ ‬رَجُلٍ‏ ‬كَرِيمٍ‏ ‬لَقِيتُهُ (Many a noble man I have met)27, كَتَـبْتُ‏ ‬بِالْقَلَمِ  (I wrote with the pen), زَيْدٌ‏ ‬كَالأَسَدِ (Zayd  is like the lion), اَلْحَمْدُ‏ ‬لِلَّهِ (The praise belongs to Allah);

and by حُرُوفِ‏ ‬الْقَسَمِ (the particles for swearing) and they are   اَلْوَاوُ  = و (by) and  اَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by) and  اَلْـتَاءُ = تَ (by) like when you say: وَاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) and بِـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) تَاللَّهِ(I swear by Allah).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَالْفِِِِعْلُ‏ ‬يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِقَدْ‏ ‬وَالسِّينِِِِِِِ‏ ‬وَسَوْفَ‏ ‬وَتَاءِِِِ‏ ‬التَّاْنِيثِِِ السَّاكِنَةِ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

وَ‏‬الْـفِعْلُ يُـعْرَفُ بقد is a phrase which consists of  و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) which is also وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و) and the noun الفِعْل which معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [فالاسْـمُ] which has been previously mentioned above. وَ‏‬الْـفِعْلُ يُـعْرَفُ بقد is conjoined to the sentence that began with فالاسم or is a resumption of the discussion about the parts of اَلْـكَلاَمُ.

الفعل is المبتدأ (the subject of the sentence) in the case of rafʿ by the very fact that it is at the beginning of the sentence.The sign which demonstrates that الْـفِعْلُ is in the the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to the end of it.

 يُـعْرَفُ is a phrase which consists of فعل مضارع للمجهول  (a present tense verb in the case of  rafʿ constructed on the pattern of الْمـجْهُول  (the passive voice) and a concealed pronoun which is نائب الفاعل (the stand in for doer) and which implies هو يُعْرَفُ  is standing in the place of a predicate noun in the case of rafʿ which would be خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject noun) الفعل  – that noun is مَعْرُوفُ – and so you would say: فالفعل مَـعْرُوفٌ‏ ‬بِـ. The sign which demonstrates that  يُـعْرَفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

بقد is a phrase which consist of  بِـ which is ‏ ‬حرف جرّ (a preposition) and قد which is حرف تحقيق و تقليل (a particle of absolute certainty and infrequency) that is standing in the place of  مجرورٌ‏ ‬بالالجارّ (a noun in the case of jarr due to the preposition).  The preposition بـِ is also linked to the verb يعرف in expression and so you say: ‏ ‬يعرف بـِ.   The sign which demonstrates that قد is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني  (fixed in its  construction) on sukuun and لِـمُحَاكَـاتِـهَا لِـصُورَتِـهَا بالنَّص فقط  (because it has been quoted as it is in its fixed condition only to illustrate a point of grammar in the text); that point is that الفعل is يعرف known بـِ (by) the particle قد.  That is to say, if you are try to discover which word is the verb in a sentence which has قد in it, the verb is identifiable by قد which precedes it and is a sign of it.

والسِّينِ is a phrase which consists of و which is  حرف عطف (the particle of conjunction)  and السِّينِ which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]).  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in  the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that السِّينِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

وَ‏‬سَـوْفَ is a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and سوف which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]) and which is standing in the place of  مجرور بالجارّ (a noun in the case jarr due to the preposition).  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because  سَـوْفَ is مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and لمحاكاته لصورته بالنَّص (because of it having been quoted in its fixed construction, only to illustrate a point in the text); that point is that الفعل is يعرف بسوف (known by the particle سَـوْفَ).  That is to say, if you are try to discover which word is the verb in a sentence which has سَـوْفَ in it, the verb is identifiable by سوف which precedes it and is a sign of it.

وتَاءِ is a phrase consisting of و which is  حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and تَاءِ which is معطوف عليه (a noun conjoined to it [قد]).  The noun conjoined to another noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.   The sign which demonstrates that تَـاءِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which is clearly affixed to its end.  تَاءِ is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

التّأْنِيثِ is ‏ ‬مضاف إليه (a noun that has been conjoined to it [تاء]) and as a result, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr because of the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that التّأْنِيثِ is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which is clearly affixed to its end.

السَّاكَِـنةِ is نعت (the adjective) for the noun تاء.  The adjective of a noun in the case of jarr is also in the case of jarr.  The sign which demonstrates that السَّاكَِنةِ is in the case jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

وَاَلْـفِعْلُ (And the verb)يُعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـقَدْ (is known by قَـدْ (qad28وَالسِّين (and siin =سَ [sa]) وَسَـوْفَ (and sawfa)  وَتَاءُ‏ ‬التَّأْنِيثِ‏ ‬السَّاكِنَةِ (and the taa of femininity bearing sukuun).

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

والفعل‏ ‬يعرف بـقد كقولك قَدْ‏ ‬قَامَ‏ ‬وقَدْ‏ ‬يَقُومُ‏ ‬وبالـسّين وسَوْفَ‏ ‬كقولك سَيَقُومُ‏ ‬وسَوْفُ‏ ‬يَقُومُ‏ ‬وبـتاء التّأنِيثِ‏ ‬السّاكنة كقولك قَامَتْ‏ ‬وقَاَلتْ

Explanation of Text in English:

The verb is known by قَـدْ‏ ‬as you would say:قَـدْ‏ ‬قَامَ (He definitely stood up) and قَـدْ‏ ‬يَـقُومُ (He might stand) and by السَّينِ (the particle سَ) and the particle سَوْفَ as you would say: سَيَقُومُ (He will stand) and سَوْفَ‏ ‬يَقُومُ (He will stand) and by تاَءِ‏ ‬التَّأنِـيثِ‏ ‬السَّاكِنَةِ (the taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun29 = تْ  – like when you say:  قَامَتْ (she stood) and قَالَتْ (she spoke).

Arabic Text:

‏(‬وَالـْحَرْفُ‏ ‬مَا لاَ‏ ‬يَصْلُحُ‏ ‬مَعَهُ‏ ‬دَليِلُ‏ ‬الإِسْمِ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬دَلِيلُ‏ ‬الْفِعْلِ‏)‬

The Explanation of the Role of Each Word in the Text:

والْحَـرْفُ مَـا لاَ يَـصْلُحُ  is a phrase which consists of  و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction) which is also وَاوُ‏ ‬الإسْـتِئْنَافِ (the resumptive و) and the noun الحرف which معطوف عليه (a noun that which has been conjoined to it [فالاسْـمُ] which has been previously mentioned above. والْحَـرْفُ مَـا لاَ يَـصْلُحُ which is conjoined to the sentence that began with فالاسم or is a resumption of the discussion about the parts of اَلْـكَلاَمُ.

الْحَـرْفُ is also مبتدأ (a subject noun) in the case of rafʿ by the virtue of the fact that it is at the beginning of the sentence.  The sign which demonstrates that الحَـرْفُ is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to the end of it.

ماis اسم موصول (an relative noun) which is خبر المبتدأ (the predicate of the subject  noun) الحرف  and standing in place of a noun that is the case of  rafʿ.  The sign that it is in the case of  rafʿ is a ḍammah which cannot be constructed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construcion) on sukuun.

لاis حرف نفي (a particle of negation).

يصلحُ is a present tense verb and فاعله (its doer) which is a permissibly concealed pronoun that implies هو is the doer.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which is clearly affixed to the end of it.

مَعَهُ  is a phrase which consists of مَعَ which is ظرف مكان(an adverb of place)  مبني (fixed in its construction) on fat-ḥah and ـهُ which is ضَـمِير مُـتَّصَل (an attached pronoun) مبني (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah .   مَـعَ is also مضاف (a constructed noun) and ـهُis مضاف إليهis a noun30 which has been constructed to it (مَـعَ) and as a result, it is standing in the place of   مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that ـهُ is in the case of jarr is an implied kasrah which cannot be affixed to its end, because it is مبني (fixed in its construction) on ḍammah.

دَلِـيلُis فاعل (the doer) of the verb يصلحand is in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that it is in the case of rafʿ is a ḍammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  دَلِيلُ is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

الاِسْـمِ is مضاف إليه  (a noun which has been conjoined to it [دليل]) and therefore, it is  مجرور بالإضافة (the noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign which demonstrates that الاِسْـمِ  is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

ولاis a phrase which consist of و which is حرف عطف (a particle of conjunction)  and لا which is حرف نفي (a particle of negation) .

دَلِـيلُ is معطوف عليه (that which has been conjoined to it [the first دليل] mentioned above) and as a result it is in the case of rafʿ.  A noun conjoined to another noun in the case of rafʿ is also in the case of rafʿ.  The sign which demonstrates that  دَلِـيلُ is in the case of rafʿ is a dammah which has been clearly affixed to its end.  This second دليل is also مضاف (a constructed noun).

 الْفِعْلِ is مضاف إليه is (a noun conjoined to it [دليل]) and as a result,  it is مجرور بالإضافة (a noun in the case of jarr due to the iḍaafah construction).  The sign that demonstrates that it is in the case of jarr is a kasrah which has been clearly affixed to its end.

English Translation of the Text:

وَالْـحَـرْفُ (And the particle31 is) مَـا (that which), ‏ ‬لاَ‏ ‬يَـصْلُحُ‏ ‬مَـع (are not permissible with it) دَلِـيلُ‏ ‬الاِسْـمِ (the distinguishing signs of the noun)‏ ‬وَدَلِـيـلُ‏ ‬الْـفِعْــلِ (nor the distinguishing signs of the verb). (Note:That is to say, the particle is the part of speech which can not have the distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb affixed to its end.)

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

والحرف ما لا‏ ‬يصلح معه دليل الإسم ولا دليل الفعل لأنه لا‏ ‬يقبل علامات نحو ال ولا تنوين ولا‏ ‬يدخل حرف الخفـض عليه‏  ‬ولا قد أو السين أو سوف فلا تقول الـْمِِِنْ‏ ‬أو مِنًا أو إِلَي‏ ‬هَلْ‏ ‬لا تقول قََدْ‏ ‬فِِِِي‏ ‬أو سَعَلَى أو سََوْفَ‏ ‬عَنْ‏ ‬ ولو أنّ‏ ‬الحرف خالٍ‏ ‬من العلامات فإنه علامة لغيره‏ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَـرْفُ (the particle) is the (part of speech) for which none of the  distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb are permitted, because it is void of signs.  For  instance,  it  does  not  receive ال nor tanwiin (ــً‏ ‬,‏ ‬ــٍـ‏ ‬, ــٌـ‏ ‬) nor do the prepositions ( عَنْ‏ ‬،‏ ‬إِلَى‏ ‬،‏ ‬مِنْ etc.) come in front of it nor  do قد or سـَ or سوف come in front of it.  You can not say الـْـمِِِنْ or مِنًا or إِلَي‏ ‬هَلْ nor do you say قَدْ‏ ‬فِي  or سَعَلَى or سَوْفَ‏ ‬عَنْ.  Although الْحَرْف (the particle) is void of distinguishing signs, it is a distinguishing sign for other words. It shows the purpose of the word that follows it and its role in a sentence clause or phrase, like when you say: الإمامُ فِـي الْـمَسْجِـدِ (The imaam is in the masjid): فِي is حرف جرّ (a preposition) and الْـمَسْجِـدِ is مَجْرور (an object of the preposition).

Endnotes:

1 آجَرُّوم (Aajarruum) meansصُوفِي (suufii; pious man) in the Berber language.

2 The Basmalah is: بسم اللّه الرّحمَـــن الرّحيم

3 ضميرالفصل (The pronoun of separation) helps to clarify the relationship between the word which precedes ضميرالفصلand the word that comes after it.‏  ‬It is called  ضمير(a pronoun) because it resembles the pronoun in its structure.  It is called ضمير‏ ‬فصل (a pronoun of separation) because it distinguishes between what is خبر (a predicate) and نعت (an adjective).  It is also used to emphasize the subject.  If the pronoun of separation is not placed between some words that are adjacent to each other, confusion may arise – especially if the text is un-vowelized – as to whether the second word is the adjective for the first word or is its predicate.  If you say for instance: عَـلاَّلٌ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِدُthe relationship  between  علاَّلٌ and الْمُجْتَهِـدُ  in their   construction can be understood to be a subject / predicate relationship  and so you can say  (ʿAllaal is the mujtahid) or it  can be understood to be a noun / adjective relationship  and so you can say (…Allaal the mujtahid).  However, if what is desired is a subject / predicate relationship exclusively, then  ضمير الفصل (The pronoun of seperation) must come between the two words – and so you say:  علاَّلٌ‏ ‬هُـوَ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِـدُ.  When the pronoun of separation هُـوَ is placed between them, the word that precedes هو which isعلاَّلٌ‏ ‬is understood to be المبتدأ(the subject) and the word that followsهو which isالْمُجْتَهِد is understood to be  الخبر (the predicate) of علاَّلٌ and therefore علاَّلٌ‏ ‬هُوَ‏ ‬الْمُجْتَهِد (ʿAllaal is the mujtahid) . 

4 اللَّفْظ (Utterance or expression) is a term which means : throwing and hurling that is to say, the emission and expulsion (of sound).  It is said, لَفَظْتُ‏ ‬كَذَا كَذَا “I expressed or uttered such and such” which means I hurled (emitted) or threw (expelled) sounds (into the air) which consisted of some of the letters of the alphabet – like when you say: Zayd which consist of the letters ز and ي and د

5 That is to say, speech must be composed of two or more words.

6  The phrase بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (‘in accordance with customary usage’ [or conventional rules]) as mentioned in the above statement, means the expressions used by the Arabs out habit or custom for speaking, reading, and writing which they agreed upon and which eventually became regulated by conventional rules of grammar.The rules of customary usage evolved to become the rules of Arabic grammar.  (In accordance with the rules of customary usage) means [in accordance with] Arabic rules of grammar.  It means to make an expression the representation of the meaning of something like زَيْدٌ.   زَيْدٌ is an Arabic expression which the Arabs have constructed to represent the meaning of something or the name of it.  

7 A one word expression is not considered to be  كَـلاَم (speech) according to the Arab  grammarians, unless that word has another implied word adjoined to it.  For instance if you say: مَـنْ‏ ‬أَبُـوكَ  (Who is your father?) and the reply is مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad). Although one word ‘Muhammad’ is expressed four words: مُحَـمَّد أَبِـي (Muhammad is my father) are impliedor when you say: إذْهَـبْ (Go), one word is expressed but two words:  أَنْتَ إذْهَبْ (You go) are implied.  

8 The subject noun is normally in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah or a substitute forḍammah unless it is preceded by إنَُor a particle similar toإنَّ.  In that case, the subject must be in the case of naṣb. ‏ ‬

9 الْـمُضَافُand الْـمُضَافُ‏ ‬إِليْهِ are two parts of a construct known as the iḍaafah construction.  The iḍaafah construction demonstrates one of five relationship: 1. the relationship between a possesed thing and the possessor of it, like when you say: بَيْتُ‏ ‬الرَّجُلُ (the house of the man); 2. the relationship between (a noun and its adjective), like when you say: إِمْـرَأَةُ‏ ‬الْـجَـمِيلَةِ (the woman of beauty [that is to say: the beautiful woman]) or كَـرِيمُ‏ ‬النَّفْسِ (the generous of spirit [ that is to say: the generous spirit]); 3. the relationship between a masdar (verbal noun) and (the noun over which it has verbal force, like when you say: قَـتْلُ‏ ‬الْـعَدُوِّ (the killing of the enemy); 4. the relationship between the doer noun andthe receiver of its action, like when you say: فَـارِسُ‏ ‬الْخَـيْلِ (the rider of the stallion); and 5. the dharf makaan (the adverb of place) and the noun that accompanies it, like when you say: مَـعَ‏ ‬مُحَـمَّدٍ(with Muhammad) and قَـوْقَ‏ ‬الأرْضَِ(above the ground). 

10 وَاَقْـسَامُـهُ (its parts) is standing in the place of the statement  وَاَقْـسَامُ الكَلَامِ (the parts of speech).

11 The discussion is about three things i.e. the three parts of speech. When all three things are discussed, it will be said, “the whole or entire matter has been discussed, however since إسم is  only one of the three parts of speech that has been mentioned, and only part of the whole discussion, or one of three things that will be discussed,  the role or purpose of the noun إسم in the sentence is as بَدَلُ‏ ‬مُفَصِّلٍ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬مُجْمَلٌ (a substitute word that has been mentioned in place the whole).

12  ى (Alif maqsuurah) is a letter which is مبني (fixed in its construction) on the vowel fat-ḥah which means that it cannot be inflected to receive any vowel other than fat-ḥah, because such inflection would be burdensome on the tongue in its expression.

13 That is to say the word مَعَنىً prior to this change would have been spelled مَعَانً. As a result, this would have caused it to be expressed with sukuun on the alif and sukuun on the nuun. To avoid this the alif was dropped in the spelling, and so مَعَانً became مَعَنىً .

14 حَـرْفٌ‏ ‬جَـاءَ‏ ‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with a meaning) means:  الـحَـرْفُ يَـدُلُّ عَـلَى مَعْنَى فِي غَيْرِهِ (the particle is a word that shows the meaning [purpose] of another word) that follows it. الْـحُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـعَرَبِـيَّة (The Arabic letters) are divided into two kinds: حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَبَانِـي (the letters of foundation [without meaning]) and حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَعَانِي (the letters  coming with a meaning).  As for حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَبَانِي,  they are the letters of the Arabic alphabet which start with alif = ا and end with the letter yaa = ي.  As for حُرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمَعَانِي,  they are of two kinds: عَـامِـلَةٌ (active) and عَاطِـلَةٌ (passive).  الْـعَامِـلَةُ is حَـرْفٌ (a particle) which causes  change at the end of a word they precede  –  like  حَـــرْفُ‏ ‬الْجرِّ (the particle which causes kasrah to appear at the end of a word) and حَـرْفُ‏ ‬النَّصْبِ (the particle which causes fat-ḥah to appear at the end of a word) and حَرْفُ‏ ‬الْـجَزْمِ (the particle which causes sukuun to appear at the end of a word).  

الْعَاطِلُ is  حَرْفٌ (a particle) which does not cause change at the end of a word – like حَرْفَا الاِسْتِفْهَامِ (the two interrogative particles) أَ and هَلْ which do not cause change to occur at the end of the word they precede.‏ ‬   

15‏ ‬الفاء ‏ ‬is called فاء الفصيحة (the faa which clarifies), because it ‘brings a matter to light’, ‘brings attention to a matter’, ‘it makes a matter plain or clearly apparent’ – in this case, the ‘matter’ being an implied sharṭ (conditional statement). الفاء ushers in a clause which is the conclusion to a conditional statement.  This conclusion statement is called جواب شرط مقدّر (the answer or conclusion to the conditional statement). For example in the case of the conclusional statement  ‬فَـالاِسْـمُ‏ ‬يُـعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـ, it is an answer to an implied conditional statement that has gone unexpressed.   The implied statement being:  إِذَا أَرَدْتَ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬تَـعْرِفَ‏ ‬مَـا‏ ‬يَـتَمَيَّزُ‏ ‬بِـهِ‏ ‬كَـلُّ‏ ‬مِـنَ‏ ‬الاِسمِ‏ ‬وَالْـفِعْلِ‏ ‬وَالْحَـرْفِ‏ (If you desire to know how each noun, verb and particle is distinguished one from the other). The conclusion to this conditional statement will be introduced by فاء الفصيحة and so you say:  ‬فَـالاِسْـمُ‏ ‬يُـعْرَفُ‏ ‬بِـ (the noun is known by…) to the end of the statement.    

16 In the passive voice,  the doer of this verb goes unmentioned or is unknown, and what would have been the object of verb in the active voice becomes the subject of the verb in the passive voice, and so you say: “The nounis recognized by such and such signs or conditions”.  In an active voice, the doer of the verb is mentioned and what was the subject of the passive voice becomes the object of the active voice verb, like when you would say, “I recognize the noun when I see such and such signs or conditions.” 

17 That predicate is the noun مَعْروفٌ. like when you  الإسْمُ مَعْروفٌ بِـ (The noun is known by…).  مَعْروفٌ is the predicate of the subject noun الإسْمُ.

18 When a noun in the case of rafʿ precedes the verb,  it is called الْـمُبْتَدأ (the subject). When the noun follows the verb it is called الفاعل (the doer).

19 The waaw which ushers in the resumption of a statement) or which resumes the statement about a previously mentioned matter

20 الْـخَفْضُ (the lowering of the vowel) is the opposite of  الرَّفْـعُ (raising  of the vowel). It is the placing of the vowel kasrah beneath a letter and so it is said that the vowel has been ‘lowered’.

21 The meaning of the term التَّنْوِينُ tanwiin is  ‘adding of the nuun sound’, that is to say,  the vocalization of a noun with a clear sound of nuun bearing sukuun at the end of it.  

22 That is to say, ‘the placing of alif and laam (ال) at the beginning of a word’.

23 They are called particles of lowering because they cause the last letter of the noun which they are governing to carry the vowel kasrah.  The vowel kasrah is place beneath their last letter and so it is said that the vowel has been ‘lowered’.  They are:

     مِنْ which is used to indicate الإِبْتِدَاء (the beginning of a matter);

    إِلَى  which is used to indicate الإِنْتِهَاء (the end of a matter)

    عَنْ which is used to indicate الْـمُجَاوَزَة (passing beyond)

   عَلَى  which is used to indicate الاِسْتِعْلاَء (elevation)

    فِي  which is used to indicate الظَّرْفِيَة (containment or envelopment)

   رُبَّ  which is used to indicate التَّعْدَاد (enumeration)

  البَاءُ which is used to indicate الْـمَقْرَبَة (proximity or nearness)

الْكَافُ which is used to indicate التَّشْبِيه (comparison)

  اللاَّمُ which is used to indicate الـْمِلْك (possession)

24 The particles of swearing are:

الوَاوُ which precedes the clearly distict noun only – like when you say: وَاللَّهِ and 1-2وَالتِّينِ وَالزَّيْتُونِ ‬وَطُورِسِينِينَ – ﴿من التين

الْـبَاءُ which causes a word to be in the case of khafḍ whether its a clearly distict noun or a pronoun, only if that word is followed by another word or phrase like when you say in the case of a clearly distinct noun:  بِـاللَّهِ شَهِـيدًا – ﴿من النساء 166 and in the case of a pronoun: بِكَ‏ لأَضْرِبَنَّ ,

التَّاء which only precedes  the Name of Allah – like when you say:    57تَاللَّهِ‏ لأكِيدَنَّ‏ ‬أَصْنامَكُمْ – ﴿من الأنبياء      .

25 See footnote 20.

26 The meaning of the termالتنوينtanwiin is  ‘adding the nuun sound’, that is to say,  the vocalization of a noun with a clear sound of nuun bearing sukuun at the end of it,  like when you say: كِتَابٌ وَقَلَمٌ 

Tanwiin is of four kinds: 

1. تنوين التمكين (the tanwiin of possibility) – that is to say, the tanwiin which shows that a noun is fully declinable [having the ability to take all three vowels].  It is affixed to the end of the Arabic noun that is fully inflected and for this reason it is also called تنوين الصرف (the decinable tanwiin).  It is like when you say: رجلٌ‏ ‬‏. ‬رجلٍ‏ ‬‏. ‬رجلاً and excluded from that is the tanwiin for the sound feminine plural like: معلماتٍ and the defective noun like جوارٍ and مقاهٍ;  

2. تنوين المقابلة (the equivalent tanwiin) – which is affixed to the sound feminine plural..  It is equivalent to the nuun at the end of the sound masculine plural like when you say مُـعَلََّمَاتٍ which becomes equivalent to the nuun in the sound masculine plural like when you say مُعَلِّمِينَ

3. تنوين العِوَض  (the substitute tanwiin) which is of three kinds: 

a)  the substitute for a sentence like when tanwiin is affixed to إذ from the words حِـينَئِذٍ and يَوْمَئِذٍ. which are the equivalent of the phrases  حِينَ‏ ‬إِذٍ and يَوْمَ‏ ‬إِذِ respectively; 

b) the substitute for a word like when tanwiin is affixed to كُلّ when you say: كُلٌّ‏ ‬قَائِمٌ (everyone is standing) that is to say كُلُّ‏ ‬إِنْسَانٍ‏ ‬قَائِمٌ (Every man is standing) wherein إنسان is dropped from the speech and replaced by an equivalent tanwiin on كلّ;

c) the substitute for a letter which is affixed to the end noun – like in the words جوارٍ and غواشٍ – both of which are defective and partially declinable. They can only receive dammah or kasrah as a final vowel and so, الحذف (the dropping of the final letter) occurs. – like when you say: هؤلاء ضِوارٍ and مررت بضوارٍ.   The root of the word ضِوارٍ is ضواري  and so, the letter ي has been dropped from the end of it and has been replaced with kasrah  tanwiin  

4. تنوين التّنكير (the tanwiin which is affixed to end of indeclinable nouns  in order to distinguish between a definite and indefinte noun)  – for example: جَاءَ‏ ‬سِبَوَيْهِ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬سِبَوَيْهٍ.  In this, the first example of سبويه is a definite noun in the case of raf ʿ and the second example is an indefinite noun in the case of rafʿ.  The sign of it being in the case of rafʿ is kasrah which is standing in the place of dammah. The form which does not carry tanwiin  سَبَوَيْهِ  is definite. is preferable to السبويه.

27 That is to say, “I have met many men from among noble men” or simply, “I have met many noble men.”

28 Whenقَدْ  is used withالُفِعْلُ‏ ‬الْـمَاضِي(the past tense verb) it is حَرْفُ‏ ‬تَحْقِيقٍ (a particle of confirmation) which is used to emphasize the definite occurrence of an action like when you say: قَـدْ‏ ‬طَلَعَتِ‏ ‬الشَّمْسُ‏ ‬عَلَى الأُفْقِ (The sun has definitely appeared on the horizon).  Whenقَدْ is used with الْفِعْلُ‏ ‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) it is  حَرْفُ‏ ‬تَقْـلِيلٍ (a particle of rarity, infrequency or uncertainty) which is used to express doubt as to whether or not an action will take place like if you say:قَدْ‏ ‬يَجِيءُ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬قَدْ‏ ‬لاَ‏ ‬يَجِيءُ (He may come and he may not come).  However, قَـدْ may also be used with  الْـفِعْلٌ‏ ‬الْـمُضَارِعُasحَـرْفُ‏ ‬تَـحْقِيقٍ  in order to confirm the certainty of  a matter in a statement or conversation like when Allahسُبْحَانَ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬تَعَالَى says in His Noble Book:قَدْ‏ ‬يَعْلَمُ‏ ‬اللَْهُ‏ ‬مَا أَنْـتُمْ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ (Surely Allah knows your condition …) surah 24:64.

29 The taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun (تْ) occurs at the end of the past tense verb in order to show that the pronoun [she] or [it – feminine] is the doer of the verb.

30 In English grammar, is ـهُ (he) classified as a pronoun, but in Arabic grammar it is classified as a noun.   This is because, according to the traditional and classical Arabic grammarian including Ibn Ajurruum the author or this grammar text,  Arabic grammar has three parts of speech: ‏ ‬إِسْـمٌ (noun), فِـعْلٌ (verb) and حَـرْفٌ (particle); whereas according the English grammarians there are eight parts of speech: noun,  pronoun,  adjective,  adverb, verb, preposition, and conjunctions,  and interjection.  In classical Arabic these parts of speech do not disappear, but are classified differently.  In Arabic grammar, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs all fall under the Arabic grammar classification of إِسْـم (noun).  Thus, five of the parts of speech from English grammar are enveloped in the classification for one single Arabic part of speech.   As for the English verb, it is classified the same way in Arabic as it is in English – that is to say, in English, the action word is called the verb.  In Arabic the action word is called فِعْلٌٌٌُُ (action/verb).  The remaining three parts of speech from English grammar: prepositions, conjunctions and interjections fall under the Arabic grammar classification of حَرْفٌ. (In some cases interjectional statements are formed by using nouns as well.)  Althought these eight parts of speech are classified in these categories in Arabic grammar, each one is identified in its category with a specific name.  For example, the adjective is known as ‏ ‬نَـعْتٌ or صِـفَةٌ; the adverb is known as ظَرْفٌ; the preposition is known as  حَـرْفُ‏ ‬جَـرٍّ or جَـارٌّ; the pronoun is known as ضَـمِيرٌ or مُضْمَرٌ.   The relative pronoun is known as إِسْمُ‏ ‬المَوْصُوـلٍ.   The demonstrative pronoun is known as إِسْمُ‏ ‬الإِشَارَةٌ; the conjunction is known as حَرْفُ‏ ‬عَطْفٍ or عَاطِفٌ; The interjection is known as أَصْوَاتٌ or حَرْفُ‏ ‬نِدَاءٍ or حَرْفُ‏ ‬مُنَادَةٍ etc.  

31 الـْحُـرُوفُ(the particles) are divided between: 

(a) those which commonly govern both verbs and nouns, likeحَـرْفَا الاِسْـتِفْهَامِ (the two particles of interrogation) and حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles); 

(b) those  particles which govern nouns  exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـجَـرِّ (the prepositions) and الْـحُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـمُشَبَّهَةُ‏ ‬بِـاْلفِعْلِ (the particles which resemble the verb [that is to sayإِنَّ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬أَخْوَاتِهَا -([إِنَّ and its sisters]); 

(c) those particles which govern verbs exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الشَّرْطِ (conditional particles), حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬النَّصْبِ‏ ‬لِـلْمُضَارِعِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of naṣb), and حُـرُوفُ‏ ‬الْـجَـزْمِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of jazm).  All of these particles will be discussed in greater detail in the coming chapters.

 

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

الْـمُعْرَبُ‮ ‬بالْـحَرَكَة ‬ (The Word  That is Inflected with the Vowel) and الْـمُعْرَبُ‮ ‬بِالْـحَرْف (The Word That is Inflected with the Letter)

There are two kinds of الْـمُعْرَبَـات (Inflected words): words that are inflected with vowels and words that are inflected with letters. There are four kinds of words that are inflected with vowels: الْإِسْمُ الْـمُفْرَدُ (the singular noun), جَمْعُ التَّكْسِيرِ (the broken plural noun), جَمْعُ الْـمُؤَنِثِ السَّالِمِ  (the sound feminine plural noun), and الْفِعْلُ الْـمُضَارُ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّصِلْ بِآخَرِهِ شَيْءٌ (the present tense verb which does not have anything affixed to its end [that is necessary for its construction]).

All of the above mentioned words are in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah, in the case of naṣb by fatḥah, in the case of jarr by kasrah and in the case of jazm by sukuun. The exception to this rule is: the noun which is not fully inflective which is in the case of jarr by fatḥah, like when you say: صَـلَّى اللهُ‮ ‬عَـلَى إِبْرَاهِمَ; and the sound feminine plural which is in the case of naṣb by kasrah, like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَحِدَاتِ‮ ‬, and‮ ‬the present tense verb which has a weak letter affixed to its end. It is caused to be in the case of jazm by dropping the weak letter, like when you say لَمْ‮ ‬يَخْشَ‮  (‬يَخْشَــى‮)‬ ‮ ‬ولَمْ‮ ‬يَـمْشِ‮  (‬يَـمْشِــي‮)‬  ولَمْ يَغْزُ)‮ (‬يَغْزُو‮)‬ا.

There are also four kinds words which are inflected with letters: الْـمُثَنّى وَالْـمُلْحَق بِهِ (the dual noun and what is annexed to [follows] it), جَمْعُ‮ ‬الْـمُذَكِّرِ‮ ‬السَّالِمِ‮ ‬وَالْـمُلْحَقُ بِهِ (the sound masculine plural and what is annexed to [follows] it), الْأَسْـمَاءُ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five nouns) and الأَفْعَالُ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةُ  (the five verbs).  The five nouns are: أَبُو وَأخُو وَحَمُو وَفُو وَذُو. The five verbs are: يَذْهَبَانِ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبْانِ‮ ‬وَيَذْهَبُونَ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبُونَ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبِينَ. More explanation of all of these in the sections that explain the inflection of verbs and nouns.

  The Divisions of الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬ (the Inflection of Words)

There are three types ofالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬ (word inflection): اللَـفْظِيّ ‬(expressed inflection), تَـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (implied inflection) and ‮ ‬مَحَـلْيّ (inflection due to the word’s location).

الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬اللَـفْظِيّ‮ ‬ (Expressed Inflection)

الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬اللَـفْظِيّ‮ ‬ (Expressed inflection) is a clear signed placed at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. Expressed inflection is found in inflective words that are not weak at the end.  For example: يُكْرِمُ‮ ‬الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَحهِدَ.

الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (Implied Inflection)

الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (Implied inflection) is a sign not clearly seen at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. The vowel at the end of the word is implied because it can’t be expressed. They are words which are weak because they have alifwaaw or yaa affixed to their end. andالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (implied inflection) is also found in the nouns that are in iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person masculine pronoun, and in a word used for illustration or example when  not a sentence.الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬(Implied inflection) is also found in any fixed word or sentence that is said to haveالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬(implied inflection).

‮ ‬إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُعْتِلِّ‮ ‬الآخَرِ‮ ‬(Inflection of Words That are Weak at the End)

It is not possible to affix any of the three vowels to alif maqsuurah, for example: يَقْضِي‮ ‬الْقَاضِي‮ ‬عَلَى الّهُدَى لِلعُلَى. The meaning of not possible is that it is not possible for the three signs of inflection: ḍammahfatḥah, and kasrah, to be affixed to alif maqṣuurah.

As for the case of jazmalif maqṣuurah is  dropped as a sign of jazm, like when you say: لَمْ‮ ‬يَخْشَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهَ.

As for waaw and yaaḍammah and kasrah are impicit for them because they are burdensome on the tongue if expressed, and so you say: يَقْضِي‮ ‬الْقَاضِي‮ ‬عَلَى الْـجَانِي‮ ‬ and ‮ ‬يَدْعُو الدَّاعِي‮ ‬إِلَى النَّادِي

What is meant by the term burdensome on the tongue is that the affixing of ḍammah and kasrah to waaw and yaa is possible, like  if you say: يَقْضِيُ‮ ‬الْقَاضِيُ‮ ‬عَلَى الْـجَانِي‮ ‬ and‮ ‬يَدْعُوُ‮ ‬الدَّاعِيُ‮ ‬إِلَى النَّادِي‮ ‬but it is a burden on the tongue  that is greatly disliked. This is the reason why both ḍammah and kasrah are implied rather than expressed. That is to say, that the possibility of their expression is understood, but not done.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُضَافِ‮ ‬إِلَى‮ ‬يَاءِ‮ ‬الْـمُتَكَلَّمِ‮ ‬ (The Inflection of the Noun That is in an Iḍaafah Construction with the Yaa First Person Pronoun)

The noun that is in an iḍaafah construction with the first person pronoun is inflected (as long as it doesn’t end with alif maqṣuurah, or  it is not a defective noun, or a dual noun or a sound masculine plural noun). It is in the case of rafʿ or naṣb by either an implied ḍammah or fatḥah the end which cannot appear at the end of the nouns in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, because the kasrah (which is the vowel that corresponds with yaa)  must be used, like when you say: ‮ ‬رَبِّيَ‮ ‬اللهُ and أَطَعْتُ‮ ‬رَبِّي.

As for the case of jarr, it is known by placing kasrah clearly at the end of a noun according to what is most correct, like when you say:  الزِّمْتُ‮ ‬طَاعَةَ رَبِّي. This is the opinion/view of a group of the recognized/competent grammarians, among whom is Ibnu Mālik, while The majority of them agree that it is inflected, and also in the case of jarr at the end by an implied kasrah. This is because they are of the opinion that the kasrah which appears at the end is not a sign of jarr, but rather, it is the kasrah which accompanies the yaa of the first person singular pronoun when it is affixed to a noun, while the kasrah of the case of jarr is implied.

If the noun in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun is affixed with alif maqṣuurah as a final vowel, the alif remains in its condition, and is inflected with implied vowels on the alif maqsuurah in the same manner it would have been inflected before the yaa of the first person singular pronoun would have been affixed to it, and so you say: هَـذِه عَـصَايَ‮ ‬ and تَـوَكَّأَْتُ‮ ‬عَـلى عَـصَايَ. If the noun is defective, then its yaa is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun.

The noun in the case of naṣb is inflected with an implied fatḥah because the sukuun of assimilation is prevented from appearing on it, and so you say: حَـمِدْتُ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬مُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ

The noun in the case of rafʿ and jarr is inflected by implied ḍammah and kasrah on its yaa, which are prevented from appearing on either of them because the first is heavy on the tongue and the second is the sukuun of assimilation, and so you say: ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬مُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ and ‮ ‬شَكَرْتُ‮ ‬لِـمُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ.

Some of the recognized/competent grammarians are of the opinion/view that the appearance of ḍammah and kasrah on the defective letters that are in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun are prohibited whenever it is the sukuun of assimilation, and  it’s a similar case when it is the case of naṣb.

Aṣ-Ṣibaan has said in the chapter about the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, according to the one explaining the point of grammar about هَـذَا رَامِـي, that رَامِـي is in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah on the the letter that precedes the yaa of the first person singular pronoun which is prevented from appearing on letter, because its place is occupied by the sukuun that is required because of assimilation and not because of the weightiness of expression. It would be same even if this wasn’t the case. This is due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case with what is stronger than the burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.

It would be same even if this weren’t the case, due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case, with of what is stronger than burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.

As for the dual noun, its alif remains in its condition, like when you say: هَـذَانِ‮ ‬كِتَابَايَ,  the yaa of the dual noun, it is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun like when you say: عَلَّمْتُ‮ ‬وَلَدَىَّ.

If is the sound masculine plural, its waaw [like in the word مُـعَلِّمُــونَ] is converted to a yaa which is assimilate into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, like when you say: مُـعَلِّمِــيَّ‮ ‬يُـحِبُّونَ‮ ‬أَدَبِـي.

As for its yaa,  [like in the word مُـعَلِّمـيــنَ], it is also assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun also. like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬مُـعَلِّمِـيَّ.

The dual noun and the sound masculine plural noun are inflected when they are in an iḍaafah construction with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun by the letters in the same manner they were inflected before they were put in an iḍaafah construction with it. As you saw.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَحْكِيِّ‮  ‬ (The Inflection of The Exact Quotation)

الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is the quotation of what you have heard or read. It is the exact quotation of a word or a sentence, and the speech from either of these is repeated exactly as it has been expressed, even if it’s a grammatical mistake and the exact quotation of it is necessary in order to point out the mistake.

الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is like when some has said: كَـتَبْتُ‮  ‬يَـعلَمُ‮ ‬(I wrote, “يَـعلَمُ”), meaning I wrote this word.

يَـعلَمُ  is  normally a present tense verb in the case of rafʿ, and therefore ungoverned  by the particles of naṣb and jazm.  In the above example يَـعلَمُ is a exact quotation and therefore it is the object of the verb  كَـتَبْتُ, but its inflection is implied because the real vowels of inflection cannot appear on a exact quotation.

If you say: كَـتَبَ‮ ‬فِـعْلٌ‮ ‬مَاضِـي, the word كَـتَبَ in this case is a exact quotation, and it is the subject of the sentence in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah which cannot appear on a exact quotation.

If it is said to you  give an explanation of the inflection of the word سَـعِيدًا ‬ when you have said: رَأَيْـتُ سَـعِيدًا, in turn you say:‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا الْـمَفْعُولُ‮ ‬بِـهِ, you quote the expression exactly in the case of naṣb, even though in your statement سَـعِيدًا is the subject of the sentence and الْـمَفْعُولُ‮ ‬بِـهِ is the predicate, except that سَـعِيدًا has an implied ḍammah at its end, because a vowel of inflection cannot appear at the end of a exact quotation, That is to say, whatever is exactly quoted by you remains fixed in the construction on the way it was quoted.

The word is quoted exactly  after  من الإستفهامية‮ ‬ (man which is used for clarification) if it is not preceded by a conjunction like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬خَالِدًا and someone says: مَـن خَـالِـدًا, however if it preceded by a conjunction the exact quotation of it is not permitted, rather you should say: وَمَن خَالِدٌ؟

The sentence that is exactly quoted is like when you say: قُـلْتُ‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬إِلـاـه إِلاَّ‮ ‬الله‮ ‬(I said),‮ ‬, سَمِعْتُ‭:‬حَيِّ‮ ‬عَلَى الصَّلاةِ‮ ‬(I heard), قَرَأْتُ‭:‬قُلْ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬اللهُ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ (I read), كَتَبْتُ‭:‬اسْتَقِمْ‮ ‬كَمَا أُمِـرْتَ(I wrote). These sentences are exact quotations standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb due to the verbs that precede them, and therefore they are inflected according to their position in the sentence.

The rule regarding a sentence is that it is fixed in its construction, and if it is governed by a governor, then it is standing in the place of a noun that is either in the case of rafʿnaṣb or jarr, depending on the governor, unless it can’t be inflected.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَسَمَى بِهِ‮  ‬ (The Inflection of a Word That Has Been Given a Name)

When you mention a word that is fixed in its construction, then you should leave it in its case, and its inflection is implied for all three cases.

If you name a man رُبَّ or مَنْ or حَيْثُ, and so you say: جَاء رُبَّ‮ . ‬أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬حَيْثُ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَـى مَـنْ, the vowels of inflection are implied at the end of them. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing  on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.

It is similar if you name a sentence like: تَأْبِطَ‮ ‬شَرًا‮ ‬and جَادُ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬ you‮ ‬didn’t change it because of the unusual inflection and so you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬تَأْبِطَ‮ ‬شَرًا‮ . ‬أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬جَادَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬the inflection of the unusual construction is implied. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing  on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.‮ ‬

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَحَلِّي‮ ‬ (The Inflection of a  Part of Speech By Virtue of its Location in the Grammatical Construction)

The inflection of a part of speech by virtue of its location in the grammatical construction is a relative change due to the governor that proceeds that part of speech, but this change is neither expressed or implied, because it is found in words fixed in their construction, like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬هَؤُلاَءِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وأَكْرَمْتُ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬تَعَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَأَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الذِينَ‮ ‬احْتَهَدُوا لَمْ‮ ‬يَنْحَجّنَّ‮ ‬الْكَسْلاَنُ.

It is also found in sentences that are exactly quoted. There has already been a discussion about it. The vowels of inflection do not appear at the end of the fixed construction because they are fixed in a specific case.

When word fixed in its construction is in the case of rafʿnaṣbjarr, or jazm, its case of rafʿnaṣbjarr, or jazm is in consideration of its location.  It’s inflection is called the inflection of location in view of the fact that the word is standing in the place of a word that would either be in the case of rafʿnaṣbjarr, or jazm. and therefore it is said that the case of rafʿnaṣbjarr, or jazm is due to the location. That is to say, with respect to its location in the sentence), in as much as if its location is permitted to be inflected in the case of rafʿnaṣbjarr, or jazm.

The particles, the command tense verb, the past tense verb which is not preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, the verbal nouns and the interjections do not have an expressed, implied or locational change at their end, and it is for this reason, it is said, that there is no form of inflection for them.

As for the present tense verb which is fixed in its construction, its inflection  which is based on its location is either rafʿnaṣb or jazm, like when you say: هَـلْ‮  ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَيَكْتُبْنَ‮ ‬وَاللهُ‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَلَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْنَ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْنَ.

As for the past tense verb which is preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, it is in the case of jasm due to its location, like when you say: إِنَ‮ ‬اجْتَهَدَ‮ ‬عَـلِيٌّ‮  ‬اكْرَمَهُ‮ ‬مُعَلِّمُهُ.

Inflection Summary

There are four kinds of inflectional words: مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject), مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate), فَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (The word that is used in addition to words normally used), and أَدَاة‮ ‬ (particle).

مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (Subject) and مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) have been previously discussed. Each of them is called a support word because it is one of the parts of speech which cannot under any condition stand independently from it, nor is a sentence complete without it. the example of مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (predicate) and مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (subject) is like when you say: الصِّدْقُ‮ ‬أَمَانَة.

مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (The predicate) is always a noun, like the word: نَافِعٌ‮ ‬ when you say: الْعِلْمُ‮ ‬نَافِعٌ‮ ‬ and the verbal noun, like when say: هيَهَاتَ‮ ‬الْـمَزَارُ‮ ‬ and a verb: جَاء الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬الْبَاطِلُ.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْنَدِ‮ ‬إِلَيّهِ‮ ‬  (Inflection of the Subject)

The rule for مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ if occurs without a governor, like when you say: فَازَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدُ‮ . ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مَـنْصُورُ‮ . ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬عُـمْرُ‮ ‬عَـادِلاً, unless it occurs after the particle إِنَّ and its sisters. As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: إِنَّ‮ ‬عُمْرَ‮ ‬عَادِلٌ‮ .‬

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْنَدِ‮ ‬ (Inflection of the Predicate)

The rule for مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ also, like when you say: السَّبِقُ‮ ‬فَائِزٌ‮ . ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬الْحَقَّ‮ ‬غَالِبٌ, ‮ ‬unless it occurs after the particle كَـانَ and its sisters.‮ ‬As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say:‮  ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬عَلِيٌّ‮ ‬بَابَ‮ ‬مَدِينَةِ‮ ‬الْعِلْمِ.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a past tense verb, then it is always fixed in its construction on the vowel fatḥah, like: انْـتَصَرَ, unless the waaw of the of the third person plural, fixed in its construction on ḍammah is affixed to the end of it, like: انْـتَصَرُوا‮ ‬or when the past tense verb has affixed to its end, a doer pronoun fixed in its construction on sukuun, like: انْـتَصَرْتُ‮ . ‬انْـتَصَرْتُمْ‮ . ‬انْـتَصَرْنَا.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a present tense verb, then it is always in the case of rafʿ, like: يَـنْـصُرُ, unless it is preceded by a particle of naṣb, in which case it will be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: لَـنْ‮ ‬تَـبْلُغَ‮ ‬الْـمَجْدَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْـجِدِّ,‮ ‬or it is preceded by a particle of jazm, in which case it will be in the case of  jazm, like when you say:  ((لَـمْ‮ ‬يَلدْ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يُولَدْ)), and if it is preceded by one of the nuuns used for emphasis, it is constructed on fatḥah, like  when you say: يَجْتَحِـدْنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬يَجْتَحِـدَنَّ, or if it is preceded by the nuun of femininity, it is constructed on sukuun, like when you say: الْفَتيَاتُ‮ ‬يَجْتَحِدْنَ.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a command tense verb, it is always constructed on sukuun, like: أُكْـتُبْ, unless it is weak at the end, then is fixed in its construction on the dropping of the last letter, like when you say: إِسْـعَ‮ ‬and أَدْعُ‮ ‬and إِمّـشِ, or if the alif of the dual doer or the waaw of the plural doer or yaa of the second person doer is affixed to it, then the command tense verb is constructed with the dropping of nuun, like when you say:  أُكْـتُبَا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬أُكْـتُبُوا‮ ‬and‮ ‬أُكْـتُبِي.

الْفَضْلَةُ‮ ‬وَإعْرَابُهَا‮ ‬ (The Additional/Surplus Word in a Sentence and the Inflection of It )

الْـفَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (The word that is used in addition to the words normally used) is any noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence, and it is not a principle or support word for the sentence. That is to say, it is not مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) or مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject), like  أُكْـتُبْ‮ ‬ when you say:  آَرْشَـدَ‮ ‬الأَنبِيَاءُ‮ ‬النَّاسَ, and so آَرْشَـدَ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) and الأَنبِيَاءُ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject)‮ ‬and النَّاسَ is الْـفَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (the word that is used in addition to words normally used). That is because النَّاسَ is noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence. This type of noun is referred to as الْـفَـضْلَة(the additional word), because it is an increase of  a word to مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) or مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject).  In the Arabic language الْـفَـضْل (surplus /additional amount) means الزِّيَادَة‮ ‬(increase/ addition/more than what is needed).

The rule in regards to الْـفَـضْلَة is that it is always in the case of naṣb when it occurs, like when you say: يَحْتَرَمُ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬العُلَمَاءَ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِحْسَانًا‮ . ‬طَلَعْتُ‮ ‬الشَّمْسُ‮ ‬صَفِيَةً‮ . ‬جَاءَ‮  ‬التَّلاَمِيذُ‮ ‬إِلاّ‮ ‬عَلِيًّا‮ . ‬سَفَرْتُ‮ ‬يَوْمَ‮ ‬الْـخَمِيسِ‮ . ‬وَجَلَسْتُ‮ ‬أَمَامَ‮ ‬الْـمِنْـمبَرِ‮ . ‬وَقَفَ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬احْتِرَامًا لِلعُلَمَاءِ, unless it occurs after the particle of jarr or as  the second member of an iḍaafah construction, then the rule is that الْـفَـضْلَة is in the case of jarr, like when you say:  كَتَبْتُ‮ ‬بِالْقَلَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬قَرَأْتُ‮ ‬كَُتُبَ‮ ‬التَّارِيخِ.

A noun is not permitted to be both فـضْلَة (a surplus word) and عْـمْدَة (a support word). However, it is permitted to be in the case of rafʿ and naṣb, like in the case when الْـمُستَثْنَى (the exclude now) is part of a negative statement in whichالْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ‮ ‬ ‬(the noun from which another noun is excluded) has been mentioned like when you say:مَـا جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدٌ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدٌ‮ ‬وَإِلاِ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا.‮ ‬ If you take in to account the meaning of this sentence, you could put what comes after إِلاَّ in the case of rafʿ, in order to trace it back to the action, because there is no arriver if it is traced back to‮ ‬أَحَـدٌ. The arrival is traced to the noun سَـعِيد and connected to it. If you consider the expression another time, you can also put سَـعِيد in the case of naṣb, because when it is expressed it is also فَـضْلَة (a surplus word), because the sentence has a subject and predicate without it.

If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is mentioned and the statement is affirmative, then the  noun  that comes after إِلاَّ must be in the case of naṣb, because it is فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْقَوْمُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا.

If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is dropped from the statement, it should be put in the case of rafʿ, like when you say: مَـا جَـاءَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدٌ, because it is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject), and it should be put in the case of naṣb, like when you say: مَـا رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا, because it is فَـضْلَة (a additional word), and it should be put in the case of jarr like when you say: مَـا مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِسَـعِيدٍ, because it is occurs after a particle of jarr.

الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (The Auxiliary Particle)

الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (The auxiliary particle) is a word which is inserted between two parts of a sentence or between the parts and الْـفَـضْلَة(additional words) or between two sentences, like the conditional particle, the interrogative particle, particle of specification, particle of desire, particle of hope/anticipation, the particles that cause the present verb to be in the cases of of naṣb and jazm, and the particles of jarr and others.

The rule for الأَدَاة‮ ‬(the auxiliary particle) is that its end stays in one condition, because it is fixed in its construction at the end.

When الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (the auxiliary particle) it is a noun, it can be the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (a subject), like when you say: مَـنْ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ؟, and  it can be the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) ‮ ‬like when you say: خَـيْرُ‮ ‬مَالِـكِ‮ ‬مَا أَنْفَقْتَهُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬سَـبِيل الْمُصْلَحَة الْعامَة, and  it can be فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say:  احْترِمِ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَطْلُبُ‮ ‬الْعِلمَ،‮ ‬اتق شَرَّ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬أَحْسَنْتَ‮ ‬إِلَيْهِ.

Sometimes, the inflection ofالأَدَاة‮ ‬ (the auxiliary particle) is the case of rafʿnaṣb and jarr due to its location in the sentence.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 1

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection)

and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

When words are arranged in a sentence, you will find among them words which change at the end due to their different roles in the sentence, and because of the different types of governors which precede them or the governing factors that affect them. You will also find among words in a sentence, words which do not change at the end because of the different types of governors which precede them or the governing factors that affect them.  The first type of word mentioned above is said to be‮ ‬مُـعْرَب‮ ‬(inflectional) and the second type is مَـبْنِيًا‮ ‬(non-inflectional). Changing the end of a word because of the different types of governors or governing factors is called إِعْـرَاب‮ ‬(inflection), while not changing the end of a word because of the different types of governors or governing factors is called بنَاء (fixed construction).

الإِعْـرَاب (Inflection) is a marked change which a governor causes to occur at the end of the word, and so the in of the word can be in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr or jazm, depending on the purpose for the governor.

الْـبنَاء (The Fixed Construction) requires that the end of a word remains in one  unchanged condition even when the governors that precede it are different.

الْـمُعْرَب (The Inflected Wordand الْـمَبْنِي (The Word Fixed in its Construction)

الْـمُعْرَب (The Inflected Word) is the word which is changed at its end because of the different types of governors that precede it or the governing factors that affect it, like:

الأََسْمَاءُ‮ ‬وَالأَرْضُ‮ ‬وَيَكْتُبُ

الْـمُعْرَب is also the present tense verb which does not have نون التوكيد‮ ‬or ‮ ‬نون السوة‮ ‬and  الْـمُعْرَب is also most nouns except for a few.

الْـمَبْنِي (The Word Fixed in its Construction) is the word that is required to remain in a fixed condition, in spite of the different governors that precede it, like when you say:

هَذَهِ،‮ ‬أَيْنَ،‮ ‬مِنْ،‮ ‬كَتَبَ،‮ ‬أُكْتُبْ

الْـمَبْنِيَّاتُ‮ ‬(Words Fixed in their Construction) include all الْـحُـرُوف (the particles), الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb), فِـعْلُ‮ ‬الأَمْـرِ‮ ‬ (the command tense verb) without exception. الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬إِذَا اتَّصِلتْ‮ ‬بِهِ (the present tense verb when) نُونُ النِسْوَةِ (the nuun used for emphasis) or نُـونُ‮ ‬النِسْوَةِ (the nuun of the feminine plural doer pronoun), and some nouns. They originate as particles, verbs fixed in their construction and inflective nouns.

The Kinds of الْبَنَاء‮ ‬ ‬(Fixed Construction)

الْـمَبْنِي‮ ‬ is either a word that is required to carry sukuun at its end, like when you say: أُكْـتُبْ and لَـمْ or ḍammah like when you say: حَـيْثُ and كَـتَبُوا or fatḥah like when you say: كَـتَبَ and أَيْـنَ or kasrah like when you say: هَـؤُلاَءِ and kasrah on the baa in the prepositional phrase بِـسْمِ‮ ‬الله. At time the previously mentioned are expressed by saying: مَـبْنِي‮ ‬عَـلَى السّكون‮ ‬(fixed in construct on the sukuun) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى ضَمَّة (fixed in construct on the ḍammah) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى  (fixed in construct on the fatḥah) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى‮ ‬(fixed in construct on the kasrah). Therefore is  based on four signs: sukuun,  ḍammah,  fatḥah, and kasrah.

Knowing which vowel the nouns and particles are constructed upon is according to generally accepted usage and sound transmission. Words fixed in their construction include: the word which is construct on the ḍammah, the word which is construct on the fatḥah and the word which is construct on the kasrah, but there are no known general rules for the construction of words on these vowels.

The Kinds of الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬(Inflection for Words)

There are four Kinds of الإعْـرَابُ (inflection for words): rafʿnaṣbjarr and jasm.

The inflected verb is changed at its end by the case of  rafʿnaṣb and jasm like when you say:  يَكْتُبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْ .

The inflected noun is changed at its end by the case of  rafʿnaṣb and jarr like when you say:وَاشْتَغلعتُ‮ ‬بِالعِلْمِ‮ ‬النَّافِعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْعِلْمَ‮ ‬نَافِعًا‮ ‬،‮ ‬العِلْمُ‮ ‬نَافِعٌ. From this we can see that the cases of rafʿ and naṣb are used in both inflected verbs and nouns, while  the case of jasm is used with the inflected verb exclusively, and he case of jarr is used with the inflected nouns exclusively.

The Signs for the الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬ (Inflection for Words)

The Sign of الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬is either a vowel, a letter or the dropping of a vowel or letter.

There are three vowels of inflection: ḍammah,  fatḥah, and kasrah.

There are four letters of inflection: alif,  nuunwaaw and yaa.

The dropping as a sign of inflection is either the dropping of a a weak letter at the end of the present tense verb or the dropping of the letter nuun from the end of the  present tense verb.

The Signs of الرَّفْع‮ ‬ (The Case of Rafʿ)

الرَّفْـع‮ ‬(The case of rafʿ) has four signs: ḍammahwaawalif, and nuunḌammah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of rafʿ is as follows: يُحَبُّ‮ ‬الصَّادِقُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنُونَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لِيُننْفِقْ‮ ‬ذُو‮ ‬سَـعة مِـنْ‮ ‬سَـعتِهِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬التِلْمِذَانِ‮ ‬الْـمُـجْتَهِدَان‮ ‬and تَنْطِقُونَ‮ ‬بِالصِّدْقِ.‮  ‬

The Signs of النَّصْب‮ ‬(The Case of Naṣb)

النَّصْب‮ ‬(The case of naṣb) has five signs: fat-ḥahalifyaakasrah and the dropping of nuunFat-ḥah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs  for the case of naṣb is as follows: جَانِبُ‮ ‬الشَّرِّ‮ ‬فَتَسْلَمََ‮ ‬أَعْطِ‮ ‬ذَا‮ ‬الْـحَقِّ‮ ‬حَقُّهُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬يُحِبُّ‮ ‬الله الْـمُتَقِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬أَبُو عُبَيْدَة عَامِر بِن الـجَرَّاح وَخَالِد بن وَلِيد فَائدِيـنَ‮ ‬عَظِمِيـنَ‮ ‬and  أُكْرِمُ‮ ‬الْفيَاتِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَاتِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬تَنَالُوا‮ (‬تَـنَالُـونَ‮) ‬الْـبِرَّ‮ ‬حَـتَّى تُـنْفَقُوا‮ (‬تُـنْفَقُوانَ‮) ‬مِـمَّا تُـحِبُّونَ. In the last example, the nuun is dropped when the present tense verb is precede by the particle of naṣb.

The Signs of الـجَرّ‮ ‬(The Case of Jarr)

الـجَـرّ‮ ‬(The case of jarr) has three signs: kasrahyaa and fat-ḥahKasrah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of jarr is as follows: تَـمَسَّكْ‮ ‬بِالفَضَائِلَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬أَطِعْ‮ ‬أَمْرَ‮ ‬أَبِيكَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْـمَرْءُ‮ ‬بِأَصْغَريْهِ‭:‬‮ ‬قَلْبُهُ‮ ‬ولِسَانُهُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬تَقَرَّبْ‮ ‬مَنَ‮ ‬الصَّادِقِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَانْأَ‮ ‬عَنَ‮ ‬الكَادِبِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬فَاعِلُ‮ ‬الْـخَيْرِ‮ ‬بِأَفْضَلِ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬السَّاعِي‮ ‬فِهِ.

The Signs of الـجَزْم‮ ‬(The Case of Jazm)

الـجَـزْم‮ ‬(The case of jazm) has three signs: sukuun, the dropping of a a weak letter at the end of the present tense verb, and the dropping of nuunSukuun is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of jazm is as follows: مَنْ‮ ‬يَفْعَلْ‮ ‬خَيْرًًا‮ ‬يَجِدْ‮ ‬خَيْرًا‮ ‬ and ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬يَزَرَعْ‮ ‬شَرًّا‮ ‬يَجْنِ‮ ‬شَرًّا‮ ‬and ‮ ‬أَفْعَلْ‮ ‬الْـخَيْرَ‮ ‬تَلْقَ‮ (‬تَلْقَــي‮) ‬الْـخَيْرَ‮  ‬(In the preceding example, the alif maqṣuurah has been dropped when the present tense verb is in the case of jazm, because it is a weak letter), لاَ‮ ‬تَـدْعُ‮ (‬تَـدْعُـو‮) ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬ (In this preceding example, the waaw has been dropped when the present tense verb is in the case of jazm, because it is a weak letter), قَـالُـوا خَـيْرًا تَغْنَمُوا‮ (‬تَغْنَمُونَ‮) ‬واسْكُتُوا‮ (‬اسْكُتُونَ‮) ‬عَنْ‮ ‬شَرِّ‮ ‬تَسْلَمُوا‮ (‬تَسْلَمُونَ‮)‬ا‮. ‬ In the last three examples, the nuun has been dropped because the present tense verb is in the case of jazm.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 1

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 –  الْـمُرَكَّبَات (The Composite Structures),‮ ‬وَأًَنْوَاعُهَا (The Various Kinds) and إِعَرَابُهَا (The Ways They Are Inflected)

The composite structure consist of two or more words for the purpose of conveying information whether that information is complete or not1.

There are six kinds of composite structures in Arabic:

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬أَوِ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ 

(The Supportive Composite Structure)2 ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬(or the Sentence)

الإسْـنَادِي is the composite construct in which one phrase is supported by another.

الإسْـنَاد is the composite construct in which one phrase is used to make a judgement observation or statement about another, like حكم علي‮ ‬زهير بالإجْـتِهَاد the observation or statement that Zuhayr has the skill of independent judgement].، when you say: زُهَـيْرٌ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ‮ ‬ (Zuhayr is a mujtahid [has the skill of independent judgement]).

The judgement or observation that is made about a person, place, thing or idea being judged is called الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate).

The person, place, thing or idea being judged, or observed is called الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْـنَادِي is also called الْـجُـمْلَة ‘the sentence’, and it consists of مُـسنَدٌ (a predicate) and مُسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ (subject), like when you say: الْـحُلْمُ‮ ‬زيْنٌ‮ ‬ (The dream is beautiful) and يُـفْلِحُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬(The mujtahid is successful).  الْـحُـلْمُ (The dream) is مُـسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ and زيْـنٌ (beautiful) has been ascribed to it.  ‬الْـحُـلْمُ has been judged to be beautiful. and therefore زيْـنٌ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) for الْـحُـلْمُ.

Likewise, فلاح‮ ‬ (success) has been ascribed to الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬ (The mujtahid. Therefore, يُـفْلِحُ isمَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) and الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ is مُسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ ( a subject).

الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject) can be الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun), نَـائِـبُهُ (the noun standing in the place of the doer), الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun), اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb), اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa), اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters), اسْم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing).

The example of الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun) is like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬البَاطِلُ‮ ‬ (The truth came and falsehood died). الْـحَقُّ and البَاطِلُ are  الْفَاعِلان (the doer nouns).

The example of  نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer) is like when you say: يُعَاقِـبُ‮ ‬الْـعَاصُـون وَيُـثَابُ‮ ‬الطَّائِـعونَ‮ ‬ (Those who are sinful are punished, and those who are obedient are rewarded). الطَّائِـعونَ and الْـعَاصُـون are نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer).

The example of  الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun) is like when you say: الصَّبْرُ‮ ‬مِـفْتَاحُ‮ ‬الْفَرَحِِ‮ ‬(Patience is the key to happiness).

The example of  اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb) is like when you say:  كَانَ‮ ‬الله عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا‮ ‬ (Allah is All Knowing and Wise).

The example of اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa) is like when you say: مَـا زُبَـيرٌ‮ ‬كَسُولاً‮ ‬ (Zubayr is not lazy) and تَعِزُّ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬شَيْءٌ‮ ‬عَلَى الأَرْضِ‮ ‬بَاقِيًا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬لاَتَ‮ ‬سَاعَةَ‮ ‬مَنْدَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ‮ ‬خَيْرًا مِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٍ‮  ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْعِلمِ‮ ‬وَالْعِلْمِ‮ ‬الصَّالِحِ

The example of ‮ ‬ اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا(the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters)‮‬ is like when you say:‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬عَـلِيمٌ‮ ‬بِـدَاتِ‮ ‬الصُّدُورِ‮ ‬ (Surely Allah knows what is inside of  the hearts).

The example of  اسْـم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing) is like when you say: لاَ‮ ‬إِلــاـهَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللُهَ.

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) can be الْفِعْلِ (the verb) and اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ (the noun of the verb) andخُبْرُ‮ ‬الْـمُبْتَدَأِ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the subject)‮ ‬and‮ ‬خَبْرُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِصِ‮ ‬(the predicate of the defective verb)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬الاحْـرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَـمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particles that functions like the verb laysa)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْـوَاتِـهَا‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters).

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) is الْفِعْلِ (the verb) like when you say: قَدْ‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ, (The believers are successful), and the predicate is characteristics which are derived from the verb like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬أأَبْـلَجُ‮ ‬(the truth clear/apparent), and الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬(The predicate) is  also a defective noun which has the meaning of derived characteristics  like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬نُـورٌ‮ ‬(The truth is light) and الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is a lion). The meaning of the first example is that الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مُـضِيءٌ‮ ‬(The truth is bright/luminous), while the  meaning of the second example is that الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬شُجَاعٌ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is like a lion).

الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic Speech)3

Arabic speech is an informative sentence that gives the listener complete information by itself.  like when you say: رَأْسُ الْحِكْمَةِ مَخَافَةُ اللهِ‮ ‬ (The highest wisdom is fear of Allah), and فَازَ الْـمُتَّقُونَ ‬(The believers were victorious), and   مَنْ صَدَقَ نَجَا‮ ‬ (He who is truthful is will be saved)

If the sentence structure does not convey complete meaning or information to the listener by itself, then it can’t be called الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic speech), for example: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge). This is a sentence structure that doesn’t convey completely informative, because the result of this conditional clause has not been expressed nor is it known. Therefore as previously mentioned, it cannot be called Arabic speech. However, if the result of the conditional statement is expressed, like when you say: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ‮ ‬تَنْجـَحْ‮ ‬ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge, you will succeed), then it becomes كَلاَم (Arabic speech).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬ (TheConstruction Which Consist of the Iḍaafah[the Adjoin/Prefixed Nouns])

‮  ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِـي‮ ‬( The Iḍaafah  Construction Composite) is the structure which consist of الـْـمُضَاف‮ ‬(The Adjoined/Prefixed Noun) and الـْـمُضَاف إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(The Noun Adjoined/Prefixed to It), like when you say: كِتَابُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬خَاتِـمُ‮ ‬فِصَّةٍ‮ ‬صَوْمُ‮ ‬النِّهَارِ. The for the second member of the iḍaafah construction is that it is always in the case of jarr.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬ ( TheComposite Structure Which Clarifies the Characteristics of the Noun)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـبَيَانِـي‮ ‬(Thecomposite structure which clarifies the characteristics of the noun consist every of two words; the first one is characterized by the second. This construction is of three kinds:

1. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬وَصْـفِيٌّ (an adjectival composite structure) – It consists of السِّفةُ (the adjective) and الْـمَوْصُـوف (the noun it describes/modifies), like when you say: فَـازَ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَ‮ . ‬طَلَبْتُ‮ ‬أَخْلاَقِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدِ

2. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬تَـوْكِـيدِيٌّ (a composite structure used to emphasize the noun) – It consist of الْـمُؤَكَّدُ (the emphasized noun) and الْـمُؤَكِّدُ (the noun that is used to emphasize) it, like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْقَومُ‮ ‬كُلُّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬الْقَومَ‮ ‬كُلَّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الْقَومِ‮ ‬كُلِّهُمْ

3. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) – It is a structure that consist of‮ ‬الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) and الْـمُبْدَلُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬(the noun that has been replaced by it [the substitute noun]), like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬خَلِيلٌ‮ ‬أَخُوكَ‮ . ‬رَأَيْت خَلِيلاً‮ ‬أَخَاكَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِخَلِيلٍ‮ ‬أَخِيكَ‮.‬

The rule for the second noun of مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) is that it follows the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬ (The Conjunctive Composite Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure) consists of الـْـمَعْطُوفِ (the noun that has been joined) and الـْمَعْطُوفِ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ (the noun that has been joined to it) by placing عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) between them, like when you say:  يَنَالُ‮ ‬التِلْمِيذُ‮ ‬والتِّلمِيذَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَمْدَ‮ ‬وَالثَّنَاءَ‮ ‬إِذَا ثَابِرًا عَـلَى الدَّرْسِ‮ ‬وَالإِجْـتِهَادِ.‮ ‬The rule for الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure)  is that the now that comes after عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) follows  the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬ (The Composite Compound Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure) is two words that are constructed as one, like: بَـعْلَبَكَّ (Baalbek), ‮ ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم (Bethlehem),  حَـضْرَمَـوْت‮ ‬(Haḍramut), سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬(Sibawayhi), صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬(morning and evening), شَـدَرَ‮ ‬مَـدَرَ (dispersed/went in every direction).

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a definite noun, then  it is pronounced without vowel ending, like when you say: بَـعْلَبَكّ‮ ‬بُـلْدَةٌ‮ ‬طَـيِّبَة الْـهَوَاءَ‮ ‬.‮ ‬سكَنْتُ‮  ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم‮ ‬.‮ ‬سَـافَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى حَـضْرَمَـوْت, unless the second part of the compound word is the word وَيْـهِ, in which case, it is always fixed in its construction at the end on kasrah, like when you say: سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِمٌ‮ ‬كَبِيرٌ‮ .‬ رَأَيْتُ سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِـمًا كَبِيرًا‮ ‬.‮ ‬قَرأْتُ‮ ‬كِتَابَ‮ ‬سِـبَوَيْـهِ.

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a indefinite noun, then both words are fixed in their construction at the end on fatḥah, like when you say: زُرْنِي‮ ‬صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬أَنْتَ‮ ‬جَاررِي‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮.‬‮ ‬

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي‮ ‬ (The Numerical Composite)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) are compound structured compound structured composites. They are every two numbers which has an implied conjunction between them, and they are the cardinal numbers: 11-19, and the ordinal numbers: 11th (eleventh) -19th (nineteenth).

As for 21-99, they are not among الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيَّةُ‮ ‬(the numerical composites), because the conjunction is expressed, rather they are الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِيَّة‮ ‬(conjunctive composite structures).

It is necessary that both parts of الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) be affixed with fatḥah at the end, even if it is in the case of raf, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, ‮ ‬or in the case of naṣb, like when you say:  رَأَيْـتُ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬كَـوْكَـبًا, ‮ ‬or in the case of jarr ‮ ‬like when you say:‮ ‬أَحْـسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلى أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرًا, or sometime both of  its parts are fixed in their construction on fatḥah and standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿnaṣb of jarr, except إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ. In this case, the first part is inflected with alif of the dual form like when you say:  جَـاءَ‮ ‬إثْـنَا عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, and it is the cases of  naṣb and jarr with yaa of the dual form like when you say:  أَكْـرَمْـتُ‮ ‬إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرَةً‮ ‬بِإثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬دِرْهَـمًا. The second part of this numerical construct is fixed in its construction with fatḥah at the end. There is no situation in which it is inflected, and of course the nuun has been dropped from the dual form of the first part.

There is no number in which number العشَـرَة (ten) is formed from the noun pattern (فاعل). This noun pattern is used to form first part of the ordinal numbers الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬(eleventh) to الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ (nineteenth). Both parts of these number are fixed in their construction on fatḥah at the end, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَةَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ‮ ‬and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـخَامِسَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ. This is the rule, unless the first part of the ordinal number composite ends with yaa. In that case, the first part of the numerical composite should be fixed in its construction on sukuun, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬ and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ.

حُكْمُ‮ ‬الْعَدَدُ‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الْـمَعْدود‮ ‬ (The Rules for the Number  and the Enumerated Noun)

If the number is وَاحد (one)  or  إثْـنَيْـن (two), then the rule is that the masculine noun is enumerated with  the masculine number, and the feminine noun is enumerated  with the feminine number, like when you say: رَجُـلٌ‮ ‬وَاحِـدٌ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةٌ‮ ‬وَاحِدَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬رَجُـلَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَانِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَتَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَتَانِ.

If the numbers are from الثلاثة (three) to العشَـرَة (ten), then the masculine noun is enumerated with the feminine number, and the feminine is enumerated with the masculine number, like when you say: ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬أَقْلاَمٍ‮ ‬for the masculine and وَثَلاَثُ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬أَيَدٍ‮ ‬for the feminine.

This is unless the number ten is part of a numerical composite. In that case, the number ten should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, then you say: ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عشرَةَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةًfor the feminine.

If a number is formed on the noun pattern (فاعل), then it should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, whether or not the number is alone or part of a numerical composite, like when you say: : الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعُ‮ ‬for the masculine‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬الْعَاشِرَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬التَّاسِعةَ‮ ‬عَشْرَةَ‮ ‬for the feminine.

The sheen in the words عشرة and عشر carry fatḥah when it enumerates a masculine noun and sukuun when it enumerates a feminine noun, and so you should say: عَشَرَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَأَحَدَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and وَ‮ ‬عَشْرَ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬إِحْدَى عَشْرَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةً‮ ‬for the feminine.

Footnotes:

1 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can be الْـجُمْلَةُ نَاقِصة الإِفَادَةِ (the sentence structure/clause which doesn’t convey complete information), can consist of any kind of subordinate clause / dependent clause which does not express a complete thought or idea, and therefore can’t stand alone), The example of this is when you express الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the conditional statement) without completing your speech with جَوَابُ‮ ‬الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the result of the conditional statement), like when you say: إِذَا جَاءَ‮ ‬إِلَى بَيْتِي‮ ‬ (If he comes to my house …).

The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can also be a phrase, like: جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase), عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة (adverbial phrase), عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase),  فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb),   بَدَلٌ ومُبْدَل (appositive phrase), عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase), صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase) or‮ ‬وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction)  مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ the emphasizing word and the emphasized word), مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word),مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (the numerical structure),عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated).

جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase) is like when you say: فِي‮ ‬الْبَيْت (in the house)

عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة  (adverbial phrase) is like when you say:  وَرَاءُ‮ ‬الْـمَسْجِد (behind the masjid)

عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase) is like when you say:أَخَذَ‮ ‬يَضْرِبُ (He began to beat)

فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb) is like when you say: جَاء بِـ (He brought)

عِبَارة مِن الْبدَل (appositive phrase) is like when you say: الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬خَالِدٌ (professor Khālid) or خَالِدٌ‮ ‬،‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُنَا‮ ‬ (Khālid, our professor)

عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  وَالرَّجُلُ (and the man)

صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  الدَّارُ‮ ‬الْبَيْدضَاءُ (the white house)

‮ ‬مُـصَاف وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction) is like when you say: وَلِيُّ‮ ‬اللَّه (the friend of Allah)

مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ (emphasizing word and an emphasized word) is like when you say:  القَومُ ، كُلُّهُم

مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word)  is like when you say: بَعْلَبَكّ (Baalbek),  بَيْتَ لَحْم (Bethlehem)

,مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (numerical structure) is any number from أحَدَ عَشَرَ to  تِِِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ

عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated) is like when you say: رَجُلٌ وَاحِدٌ

2 The composite structure which conveys complete information is called الْـمُوَكَّب الإِسْنَادِي (the composite structure which consist of a person or thing that is the subject of discussion and things that are said about him or it.).  This composite structure is also called الْـجُـمْلَة‮ ‬(the sentence [a group of words joined together to express a complete thought]).  It is for this reason the grammarian Ibn Ājurruum, the author of ‘al Ajurruumiyyah’ has said:

3اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬ (Speech is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules).

The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules.  Undoubtedly, Arabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَـفْظـًا (expressed), مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that Arabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (Alī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of‮ ‬الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مُـرَكَّبًا , Arabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏ ‬(Abdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say: ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ   (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the Arabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَـبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَـذْهَـبُ (he is going), and the ‏ ‬فِعْلُ‏ ‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

Thethird case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs – wherein the purpose of a word is not completely understood until one of these expressions is  placed next to the word.  They are like when you say: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ. So when you say:هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ‮ ‬(did he go)and مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ‮ ‬(from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏ ‬

And so, الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have regulated with conventional Arabic rules.

تَنْبِيه – A Further Note:

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on fourthings.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book:

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayāts) that are clear and these are the foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayāts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 1

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬ (The Verb/Action)

The Arabic verb is a word which demonstrates the occurrence of something in time like:   جَـاءَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬يَجِئُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬جِئْ.  The time periods in which the verbs occur are three:

a) the past tense which shows that something has already happened;

b) the present tense which show the occurrence of something now;

c) the command tense which shows that an order has been given for action to be done immediately or in the near or distant future.

Among the signs of the verb are:

‮ ‬قَـدْ‮  ‬، سَ‮  ‬،‮ ‬سَـوْفَ  ،  تَـاءُ‮ ‬التأْنِـيث السَّكِنَةِ‮  ‬،‮ ‬ضَمِيرُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِلُ‮  ‬،‮ ‬نُونُ‮ ‬التَّوْكِيدِ

like when you say:

قَـدْ‮ ‬قَامَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَـدْ‮ ‬يَقُومُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬سَيَذْهَبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬سَوْفَ‮ ‬يَذْهَبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَامَتْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قُمْتُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قُمْتِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَيَكْتُبَـنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَيَكْتَبَْـنَ،‮ ‬اكْتُبَـنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬اكْتَبْـنَ

الْـحَرْفُ (The Particle/Letter)

The particle  like: ‮ ‬هَـلْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬‮ ‬عَـلى‮ ‬،‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬مِنْis a word which shows the meaning of another which follows it, but unlike the noun and verb, it does not have signs which distinguishes it.

الـْحُـرُوفُ (the particles) are divided between:

a) those which commonly govern both verbs and nouns, like حَـرْفَـا الاِسْـتِفْهَامِ (the two particles of interrogation) and حُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles);

b) those  particles which govern nouns  exclusively, like حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَرِّ (the prepositions) and الْـحُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُشَـبَّهَةُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـاْلفِعْلِ (the particles which resemble the verb [that is to say إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِـهَا -([ إِنَّ and its sisters]);

c) those particles which govern verbs exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّرْطِ (conditional particles), حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمُضَارِعِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of naṣb), and حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَزْمِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of jazm).  All of these particles will be discussed in greater detail in the coming chapters.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 1

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

الإِسْمُ (The Noun / Name)

The noun is a phrase that names something and defines its meaning without indicating when it occurred in time, like  ٌخَـالِـدٌ ,فَرَس  and  ٌعُـصْفُور.  Information about the noun becomes clearer through its signs, like when it is prefixed with الْ like الـرَّجُـل or suffixed with tanwiin, like فَـرَسٍ or preceded by حرف النداء (the particle of address), like أَيُّـهَا النّاسُ or حرف‮ ‬الجر (preposition) like:

اِعْتِمدْ‮ ‬على مَنْ‮ ‬تُبُق بِهِ.

Nouns can either be مَعْرِيف (specific) or نَكَرَة (non-specific).  The sign of a مَعْرِيف (specific noun) is الْ (the definite article) placed in the front of the noun like when you say: الـْمَسْجِـدُ and الْـبَيْتُ.   The sign of a نَـكَرَة (non-specific noun) is the placement of تَـنْوِينٌ (tanwiin) on the last letter of the noun, like when you say شَجَرَةٌ and كَبِيرُ.  The proper names can also be affixed with الْ and تَنْوِين like when you say: حَـسَنٌ and الـْـحَسَنُ.  This الْ however does not cause the proper name to become definite because it in itself is specific/definite by its nature.

From the above discussion, we can see that الْ and تَـنْوِينٌ are two signs  from among the signs which demonstrate that a word is a noun.

أَدَاة التَّعْرِيف (The Sign for Definiteness / Specification: الْ)

Any common or non-specific noun which has الْ prefixed to its front becomes a specific noun or definite noun.

التَّنْوِينُ (Tanwiin)

The word تَّنْوِينُ (tanwiin) is a verbal noun; its closes meaning in English is ‘nuunation’ – that is to say that an Arabic noun has had the sound of the letter ن (nuun) placed on its last letter an therefore that letter has been ‘nuunated’ or ‘nuunized’ depending which way one chooses to anglicize this word.

The sign of تَـنْوِين (tanwiin) is the doubling of the short vowel signs and they become fat-ḥatayn, ḍammatayn, and kasratayn – like when you say ــً (an),‮ ‬ــٍ (in) and ــٌ (un) depending on the role the word is playing in the sentence.

تَّنْوِين (Tanwiin) as previously mentioned occurs as a sign of the noun, therefore تَّنْوِين (tanwiin) is one of the ways to determine whether or not a word in an Arabic sentence is a noun – like when you say: حَدَثَنِي‮ ‬رَجُلٌ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مُجَاهِدٍ‮ ‬خَاضَ‮ ‬مَعْرَكَةً‮ ‬دَامِـيَّةً‮ ‬(A man told me concerning Mujaahid that he rushed to a bloody battlefield.)  In this sentence, every word which has تَّنْوِين (tanwiin) affixed to end is a noun. Its divisions are two: خَظًّا‮ ‬and وَقْعًا.

There are three kinds of تَّنْوِين (tanwiin):

1. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّمْكِين  is affixed to the fully declinable inflected nouns and because of this it is also called تَنْوِينُ‮ ‬الصرف (the tanwiin of the declinable noun), like when you say: رَجُـلٌ and كِـتَابٌ.

2. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّنْكِير‮ ‬(Tanwiin of the Indefinite Noun) is affixed to the nouns fixed in their construction, like the noun that belongs with the verb and the closed proper name, i.e. (وَيْه) which is divided between the definite and indefinite.  The noun that has tanwiin affixed to it is considered to be indefinite, while the noun which does not have tanwiin affixed to it is considered to be definite, like: صَـهْ وصَهٍ‮ ‬ومَهْ‮ ‬ومَهٍ‮ ‬وإِيهِ‮ ‬وإِيهٍ and like when you say مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بسَبَوَيْهِ‮ ‬وسَـبَوَيْهٍ‮  ‬آخَر  (I passed by Sabawayhi and Sabawayhin).

When you say: صَـهْ, what you are seeking from the person to whom you are speaking is that ceases the conversation he is involve in, and if you say to him: مَـهْ, what you desire from him is that he completes the conversation he is involved in, and when you say: إِيهِ, you want to add more to the conversation.

As for when you say to him: ومَـهٍ وإِيهٍ وصَـهٍ with tanwiin affixed to the end, you desire that he either ceases every conversation, completes every conversation or add to every conversation.

3. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) which is of three kinds:

a)  تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) which is affixed to the end of the noun that is the substitute for the sentence when the noun that is being used as a substitute for the sentence replaces the sentence- like that which Allah the Most High has said: وَأَنْتُمْ‮ ‬حِينَئِذٍ‮ ‬تَنْظُرونَ () that is to say: حِينَ‮ ‬إِذْ‮ ‬بَلَغْتَ‮ ‬الرُّوحَ‮ ‬الْـحُلْقُوم تَنْظُرونَ ().  And so you drop the sentence: بَلَغْتَ‮ ‬الرُّوحَ‮ ‬الْـحُلْقُوم‮ ‬and bring its substitute.

b) تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution)which is affixed  to every noun that has been substituted for the noun that is construct with it in an idaafah – like when you say: كُـلٌّ‮ ‬قَـائِـمُ that is say: كُـلُّ‮ ‬إِنْسَانٍ‮ ‬قَـائِـمٌ‮.‬  And so you drop إِنْـسَانٍ and replace it with the substitute noun that has tanwiin affixed to its end.

The words بَـعْدٌ and أَيُّ are similar to كُـلٌّ – like the statement of Ru’yah bin Mujaaj: دَايَنْتُ‮ ‬أَرْوَى وَالدُّيُون نَقَضَ‮    ‬فَمعلت بَعْضًا وَأَدْتُ‮ ‬بَعْضًا‮  ‬and أي‮ ‬أي‮ ‬امرئ.

c) تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) is affixed to the noun which is a substitute for the particle جَـوَارٍ and غَـوَاشٍ and similar to these are the broken nouns that are not fully declinable, and so تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) stands in the place of what has been dropped – like when you say: هؤلاء ضَـوارٍ and مَـرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِـضَوَارٍ, and so the letter ى has been replaced by تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) because the root word is ضَـوَارِي, however it is not تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّمْكِين () because it is not fully declinable.

and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)

 
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